The case of colonial India and Africa
C. A. Bayly

here to a spectrum of writers from Emmanuel Wallerstein, Andre Gunder Frank and William Easterly to Bill Warren and Niall Ferguson. But AJR also offer a challenge to the sort of bottom-up, archive-based, contextualized, regional and local investigations that are the staples of most historians. This is because the nature and genesis of ‘good’ institutions is inferred from a wide range of secondary literature and statistical correlations, rather than being tested against contemporary evidence, as social historians tend to do. Broadly, too, AJR’s major articles might

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Maureen Mulholland

particularly concerned with the nature of the court or tribunal conducting the trial, its composition, its constitutional validity, its procedure and the extent to which it applies substantive principles according to existing legal rules. For the social and economic historian, the formalities and rituals of trials are not as important in themselves as for what they reveal of the lives, the mores, and the circumstances of the participants, in such a way as to throw light on their society and their era. The prime concern for political historians will be the politics of trials

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

-century countess? David Postles, whilst noting Hawise’s prominence, suggests that she was associated with her husband’s acta to prevent her from claiming dower in the future.6 However, although as Maitland noticed on the evidence of one charter women ‘sometimes’ witnessed documents, there are no examples of women’s testimony being brought forward in the courts of the twelfth century.7 Postles, like Pollock and Maitland before him, tends to view female witnessing from a legal perspective, and whilst the legal nature of charters is well accepted, this legalistic interpretation is

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

the Aga Khan’s plane was one of some twenty planes arriving for Doncaster, it was his first flight.11 Social relationships, behaviour and attendance While support for racing could be found at all levels of society, the nature of support varied with wealth, status and social class. The ardours and discomforts of the race-day journeys formed part of the occasion, and even before the races, the large crowds at a big meeting like Doncaster had plenty to entertain them, from the morning gallops or the tipsters in the marketplace, to the arrival of valuable horses at the

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Open Access (free)
Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940
Yolana Pringle

1920s to formalise their relationship with individual mission doctors. This is followed by a section that investigates how increased government funding for individual projects, campaigns, and hospitals eventually shifted the nature of colonial medicine in Uganda, and with it the relationship between missionaries and the colonial government. The chapter ends by briefly considering the patients

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

, where she ‘worthily reformed her life’ and repented of her ‘mortal sin of luxury’.15 On the presence of women at the battle of Ascalon, he states that women remained off the battlefield with the noncombatants and that they are ‘unwarlike by 14 power and portrayal nature’.16 The emotional weakness of women is made gender-specific in Orderic’s discussion of the expedition and aftermath of the defeat and capture of Mark Bohemond when campaigning against the Turks. He states that Tancred, the commander in chief, ‘did not give way like a woman to vain tears and laments

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction
Jane Brooks

) nurses were posted into these war zones alongside their medical colleagues to provide increasingly complex treatments for combatants.6 Questions regarding the limits and boundaries of nursing practice meant that the nature of nurses’ work has always been contested. Yet on active service overseas the exigencies of war created crisis environments in which these boundaries could be dissolved, enabling more collaborative, less hierarchical work patterns.7 In Sisters: Extraordinary True-Life Stories from Nurses in World War Two, Barbara Mortimer has an image of a nurse and

in Negotiating nursing
S.J. Barnett

undoubtedly caused many to ask whether Jesus had ever intended Christian to fight Christian. The wars ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, by which time most rulers desired peace in which to recover from the protracted holocaust and reaffirm their rule. Thus historians have felt able to pronounce that the ‘Reformation age of astonishing religious development and upheaval, but also of religious darkness, was coming to a close’.14 This traditional explanation surrounding the nature and significance of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century wars and conflicts, however

in The Enlightenment and religion
Nico Randeraad

be, only that this was how things had always been, and as long as the same causes persisted, it was highly likely that the same effects would be produced. In nature there are no certainties, only likelihoods. Albert marvelled at how statistical data could be used to determine human life expectancy so precisely that life insurance companies could create a specially adapted policy for any individual. Without, he emphasised, disrespectfully attempting to determine the person’s date of death. Albert’s best defence against religiously inspired opposition was his

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Mike Huggins

interest in the economic difficulties of the interwar years.4 This has been deleterious to more nuanced analysis. The neglect of upper- and middle-class betting has unbalanced research findings. Credit betting was different from working-class cash betting. British betting cultures were highly complex in other ways too. Firstly there were clear national and regional variations in betting’s nature and volume. Second, as Stevenson has pointed out, attitudes within different social strata, personality and temperament also played a part.5 We should further add age, gender

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39