in the major cities and
their suburbs, in which roads are now often gridlocked, public transport
unable to cope, schools oversubscribed and houses unaffordable for
young first-time buyers.17 Alarmingly, 20 per cent of the Irish population still exist below the poverty line.18 Oppositionparties made much
of this social and economic imbalance during the May 2007 election,
yet still lost.
What came to be seen as the Robinson era witnessed also major
changes in social legislation, particularly in relation to the politics of
sexual relations and reproductive practices
whole administration’. Bedford contended that Grenville was ‘the
most able man’ for that post, but could be balanced by Rockingham
as a Secretary of State and Charles Yorke as Lord Chancellor.109 These
negotiations in the spring of 1767 failed over disputes about office,
not policy, for Grenville volunteered assurances that he would
not seek to renew the policy of American taxation reversed by the
Oppositionparties therefore could combine to harass the Chatham
administration on America as well as India, when colonial matters
(Young 2002). The Rwandan-initiated military campaign in 1996 gathered
regional and international support, but suffocated a democratic movement
(Pomfret 1997). The efforts of thousands of civil society organisations, dissident parliamentarians and political parties long opposed to Mobutu culminated
in the 1992 Conference for National Sovereignty (CNS) (Nzongola-Ntalaja
2002: 171). This was a conference of over 2,000 delegates representing oppositionparties and a plethora of civil society organisations, which managed to
appoint a new government.8 However, Mobutu’s coup
., p. 79.
A. C. G. M. Robben, ‘State terror in the netherworld’, in A. C. G. M.
Robben (ed.), Death, Mourning and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader
(Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p. 135.
The organization Mujahedin-e Khalq was the Islamic Republic’s prin
cipal oppositionparty. It began an armed struggle in June 1981.
Makaremi, Le Cahier d’Aziz, pp. 46–9.
Testimony from Roya Sadeghi, at the International People’s Tribunal
on the Abuse and Mass Killings of Political Prisoners in Iran (1981–
88), Findings of the Truths Commission, p. 219.
Testimony from Esmat Vatanparast
presided over less sensational moves,
including the sending of mine-sweepers to the Mediterranean and Germany’s assumption of the role of paymaster and provider of logistical
support.10 Even the dispatching of eighteen Bundeswehr Alpha jets
under the auspices of NATO’s Allied Mobile Force to Turkey was challenged by oppositionparties and became possible only after a great deal
Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd
Germany and the use of force
of internal debate and on the back of relentless Conservative petitioning that the jets
, the party regularly states that it first and foremost holds the government, and not the foreigners, responsible for the disruption of society (that is, the multi-cultural
The various populist anti-party sentiments of the CD come together when
discussing the fight against their own party. It claims that the established parties attack the CD so hard because it is the only genuine oppositionparty.
Moreover, it is the only party that puts the finger on the sore spot, the multicultural society (e.g. CDa 4
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency
Kenneth A. Armstrong and Simon Bulmer
parliamentary legislation or acting as a check on government.
• The English legal tradition (common law) differs from that of continental Europe.
• The rules of the Westminster electoral system tend to ensure singleparty majoritarian government.
• The institutional structure of the state encourages the conduct of adversarial politics in Westminster between government and oppositionparties.
• The Prime Minister has considerable potential power resources, and
Member States and the European Union
can call upon the
, when the opposition denied
the Conservative-Liberal government a majority in favour of the SEA.
However, after a referendum a substantial majority did vote for the
Treaty. On 12 May 1992, the Folketing authorised ratification of the
Maastricht Treaty with 130 votes in favour, with only 25 voting against
(23 members were absent and a Faroese member abstained). This meant
support from the Conservative-Liberal minority government at the time,
as well as the leading oppositionparties, the Social Democrats, the
the restoration of two Prime Minister’s question times;
longer ministerial question time sessions with more in-depth questions;
more opportunities for backbench MPs to raise issues;
debates should have shorter speeches so that more members can participate;
more research resources available for the Oppositionparties;
more research facilities for select committees;
the MPs should control their own select committees rather than the party
standing committees which consider legislation should have more time to
use outside witnesses, along the model of the US
, including voting behavior in national and regional elections.5
Relationships between federal and Land politics
As in the United States, the subnational political systems in Germany are
basically the same. All of the Länder have parliamentary systems with a
government supported by a single party parliamentary majority (but in
Saxony-Anhalt, the SPD governed alone as a minority party from April
1998 to April 2002) or, in a majority of cases, by a coalition of two and on
rare occasions three parties, with one or more oppositionparties. Each
Land has one popularly elected