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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

in the major cities and their suburbs, in which roads are now often gridlocked, public transport unable to cope, schools oversubscribed and houses unaffordable for young first-time buyers.17 Alarmingly, 20 per cent of the Irish population still exist below the poverty line.18 Opposition parties made much of this social and economic imbalance during the May 2007 election, yet still lost. What came to be seen as the Robinson era witnessed also major changes in social legislation, particularly in relation to the politics of sexual relations and reproductive practices

in Irish literature since 1990
India and America
Peter D.G. Thomas

whole administration’. Bedford contended that Grenville was ‘the most able man’ for that post, but could be balanced by Rockingham as a Secretary of State and Charles Yorke as Lord Chancellor.109 These negotiations in the spring of 1767 failed over disputes about office, not policy, for Grenville volunteered assurances that he would not seek to renew the policy of American taxation reversed by the Rockingham ministry.110 Opposition parties therefore could combine to harass the Chatham administration on America as well as India, when colonial matters increasingly came

in George III
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

(Young 2002). The Rwandan-initiated military campaign in 1996 gathered regional and international support, but suffocated a democratic movement (Pomfret 1997). The efforts of thousands of civil society organisations, dissident parliamentarians and political parties long opposed to Mobutu culminated in the 1992 Conference for National Sovereignty (CNS) (Nzongola-Ntalaja 2002: 171). This was a conference of over 2,000 delegates representing opposition parties and a plethora of civil society organisations, which managed to appoint a new government.8 However, Mobutu’s coup

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Chowra Makaremi

., p. 79. A. C. G. M. Robben, ‘State terror in the netherworld’, in A. C. G. M. Robben (ed.), Death, Mourning and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p. 135. The organization Mujahedin-e Khalq was the Islamic Republic’s prin­ cipal opposition party. It began an armed struggle in June 1981. Makaremi, Le Cahier d’Aziz, pp. 46–9. Testimony from Roya Sadeghi, at the International People’s Tribunal on the Abuse and Mass Killings of Political Prisoners in Iran (1981– 88), Findings of the Truths Commission, p. 219. Testimony from Esmat Vatanparast

in Destruction and human remains
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Kerry Longhurst

presided over less sensational moves, including the sending of mine-sweepers to the Mediterranean and Germany’s assumption of the role of paymaster and provider of logistical support.10 Even the dispatching of eighteen Bundeswehr Alpha jets under the auspices of NATO’s Allied Mobile Force to Turkey was challenged by opposition parties and became possible only after a great deal Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 58 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 58 Germany and the use of force of internal debate and on the back of relentless Conservative petitioning that the jets

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

, the party regularly states that it first and foremost holds the government, and not the foreigners, responsible for the disruption of society (that is, the multi-cultural society). chap5 28/5/02 13.32 138 Page 138 The Netherlands The various populist anti-party sentiments of the CD come together when discussing the fight against their own party. It claims that the established parties attack the CD so hard because it is the only genuine opposition party. Moreover, it is the only party that puts the finger on the sore spot, the multicultural society (e.g. CDa 4

in The ideology of the extreme right
Open Access (free)
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency
Kenneth A. Armstrong and Simon Bulmer

parliamentary legislation or acting as a check on government. • The English legal tradition (common law) differs from that of continental Europe. • The rules of the Westminster electoral system tend to ensure singleparty majoritarian government. • The institutional structure of the state encourages the conduct of adversarial politics in Westminster between government and opposition parties. • The Prime Minister has considerable potential power resources, and 2444Ch17 3/12/02 392 • • • • • 2:07 pm Page 392 Member States and the European Union can call upon the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
In pursuit of influence and legitimacy
Finn Laursen

, when the opposition denied the Conservative-Liberal government a majority in favour of the SEA. However, after a referendum a substantial majority did vote for the Treaty. On 12 May 1992, the Folketing authorised ratification of the Maastricht Treaty with 130 votes in favour, with only 25 voting against (23 members were absent and a Faroese member abstained). This meant support from the Conservative-Liberal minority government at the time, 2444Ch4 3/12/02 Denmark 2:02 pm Page 93 93 as well as the leading opposition parties, the Social Democrats, the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

included: the restoration of two Prime Minister’s question times; longer ministerial question time sessions with more in-depth questions; more opportunities for backbench MPs to raise issues; debates should have shorter speeches so that more members can participate; more research resources available for the Opposition parties; more research facilities for select committees; the MPs should control their own select committees rather than the party whips; standing committees which consider legislation should have more time to use outside witnesses, along the model of the US

in Understanding British and European political issues
Arthur B. Gunlicks

, including voting behavior in national and regional elections.5 Relationships between federal and Land politics As in the United States, the subnational political systems in Germany are basically the same. All of the Länder have parliamentary systems with a government supported by a single party parliamentary majority (but in Saxony-Anhalt, the SPD governed alone as a minority party from April 1998 to April 2002) or, in a majority of cases, by a coalition of two and on rare occasions three parties, with one or more opposition parties. Each Land has one popularly elected

in The Länder and German federalism