these developments were eye-catching, this focus overlooks the way in which radical change had been gestating at the mundane level at which the co-operative movement primarily operated and through which it contributed to a new nationalist politicaleconomy. The split between the DATI and IAOS highlighted the intersection of political and economic ideas within Irish nationalism that became more prominent after the 1916 Easter Rising. The nominal wrangle over funding exposed two incompatible governmental visions for rural development at play before the outbreak of the
and Sukhumi are able to cover the basic
needs of their societies and sustain suﬃcient military capabilities.16 For that
Civil wars in Georgia
matter, the recurrent violent clashes in Abkhazia, like the ones in the Kodori
Valley in October 2001, help the Abkhazian authorities to maintain the mobilisation preparedness, while they resonate quite painfully in Tbilisi.17
The central issue in both the politicaleconomy of Georgian wars and the
post-war reconstruction is corruption, which penetrates into all spheres of social
organisation and corrodes all state
’s ability to withstand the crisis, must be understood within the context of its domestic politicaleconomy. While it was
arguably in China’s interest not to devalue the RMB during the height of
crisis, there are forces at work within the economy that may force China to
rethink this strategy in the future.
The economy: underlying strengths
Never in recorded history has an economy grown so rapidly and as extensively as that of post-Mao China. The Third Plenum of the Eleventh
Communist Party Congress in December 1978 saw the rise of the late Deng
Xiaoping as the paramount
establishment of a theater. It was generally suspected that this
part of the article was either written or suggested by Voltaire, who
was living in exile there at the time and complaining bitterly to
his friends about the lack of a theater.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, born in Geneva, had contributed
many entries to the Encyclopédie on music and
politicaleconomy and was well known as a
From an ‘infrastructural turn’ to the platform logics of
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
governance and international city networks, claims made in the name of the Anthropocene understanding of the urban system at the planetary scale, the dynamics of climate change and the contours of global politicaleconomy. All of them constitute what we might understand as urban ‘platforms’.
The contact zones of city networks internationally
It is clear that a growing number of international networks generate forms of exchange between cities. Michele Acuto and Steve Rayner ( 2016 ) identified a database of 170 city networks in 2015
Civilising Rural Ireland examines how modern Ireland emerged out of the social and economic transformation prompted by the rural co-operative movement. The movement emerged in response to systemic economic problems that arose throughout the nineteenth century and coincided with a wide-ranging project of cultural nationalism. Within a short space of time the co-operative movement established a swathe of creameries, agricultural societies and credit societies, leading to a radical reorganisation of rural Ireland and helping to create a distinctive Irish political economy. The work of overlooked co-operative experts is critically examined for the first time and reinserted into the process of state development. The interventions of these organisers, intellectuals and farmers built up key institutions that shaped everyday life across rural communities. The movement weathered war and revolution, to become an indispensable part of an Irish state infrastructure after independence in 1922. The strained relationship and economic rivalry that developed between Irish and British co-operators is also explored in order to illuminate the changing relationship between Ireland and the United Kingdom from an economic perspective. Civilising Rural Ireland will appeal to a wide audience interested in modern Irish history and readers are introduced to an eclectic range of personalities who shared an interest in co-operation and whose actions possessed important consequences for the way Ireland developed. The creative use of local and national sources, many of which are examined for the first time, mean the book offers a new perspective on an important period in the making of modern Ireland.
Sugar research was only one of a large number of new projects created with the passing of the 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act. The Act included a Research Fund that made the Colonial Office the second largest sponsor of civil scientific research in Britain. Scientists and officials spoke of the need to use the Research Fund to support more ‘fundamental research’. The key value that informed the new arrangements intended to expand fundamental research was ‘freedom’. Scientists at the Colonial Office claimed that for the highest quality research to occur, scientists had to be free to choose their own research problems. When it came to sponsoring sugar research as the basis for new industry, freedom was also key. The Colonial Office formed a Colonial Products Research Council to fund research into the basic reactions of sugar, avoiding narrowly defined problems that directly related to the work of any individual firm. Researchers would pursue research of the broadest possible nature, leaving individual companies to apply the results according to their interests. In this way, state-sponsored research would not contravene the principles of liberal political economy.
This chapter argues for the need to build an economic sociology/political economy of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features. It develops an ‘instituted economic process’ approach to the study of demand and innovation to account for processes of institutionalisation and deinstitutionalisation. Within this framework, the concept of a ‘production—distribution—retail—consumption’ configuration is seen as shaping innovation. The empirical investigations of this chapter involve analysis of how retail markets link demand with supply, and how that link is a structured one: the interface facing both ways. The chapter explores three empirical cases. The first involves the near disappearance of wholesale markets for fresh fruit and vegetables to retail markets, and the particular questions raised in terms of range and quality of products that flow through them. The second deals with an equally significant reconfiguration of the retail—distribution—production configuration reflected in the emergence of supermarket own-label products. The third raises the question of how the organisation of retail markets, and their transformation, alters the way demand is instituted between end consumers and retailers.
(that is to say, without the
policy of specific interest) the policy is introduced and the consequences are
worked out given the model of the economy specified earlier. Those in the new
politicaleconomy school might also try to endogenize the policy choice itself,
by in turn modelling the policy and political process, the incentives of the
different players (interest groups). In this setting, the consequences of introducing a policy might be very different, since over and above how individuals,
households, etc., react to the policy is how the policy gets implemented
Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.