: The Security Council, 2. Decides to authorize the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps, in consultation with the Government of the Republic of the Congo, to provide the Government with such military assistance as may be necessary until, through the efforts of the Congolese Government with the technical assistance of the United Nations, the

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

one. Indeed, with 4.8 percent of its GDP going to the army, Greece spends more on defense than any other NATO member. Turkey by comparison allots 4.4 percent of its GDP to defense. Five percent of Greece’s labour force is employed in the military industry, again the highest percentage in NATO. And, Greece clearly means business, declaring that it will go to war should Turkey attempt to mine the Aegean’s continental shelf’s minerals to a depth of 200 meters or attack the Republic of Cyprus. Having stationing troops on the island which, acting as a tripwire, will

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression

this time until the 1970s, the Federal Republic insisted on representing Germany alone, that is, to the exclusion of the German Democratic Republic, through the so-called ‘Hallstein doctrine’. The latter signified that only countries that did not have diplomatic relations with East Germany (excepting the Soviet Union) could have similar relations with West Germany. See e.g. Kissinger (1994, Ch. 18). Charles de Gaulle’s thinking on Europe evolved remarkably from his wartime exile to his presidency under the Fifth Republic. During and immediately MUP_Torbion_02_Ch2

in Destination Europe
A critical reassessment

2 Macroeconomic policy in the Celtic Tiger: a critical reassessment DENIS O’HEARN The miraculous turnaround in the fortunes of the southern Irish economy during the 1990s fooled most experts. The upturn began in the early 1990s, following one of the worst economic periods in the history of the Irish state. The economy then ‘took off’ in 1994 for seven years of sustained high growth that earned the Irish Republic the popular name of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. The Celtic Tiger emerged from a historic expansion in the United States that was centred on the information

in The end of Irish history?
Economy, football and Istria

refugees cost an additional $1.3 billion or around one-fifth of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1992. As a result of war damage on industry, the GDP in 1992 was less than half the 1989 GDP.4 The economic situation was made worse by the decision of the Croatian National Bank (Hrvatska Narodna Bank – HNB) to finance the 1991 war by printing Yugoslav banknotes, which inadvertently helped to fund the Serbian war effort through the cross-border transfer of notes, which was still possible prior to the 1991 ceasefire.5 In 1992 inflation reached 765.5 per cent and in 1993 it

in The formation of Croatian national identity

Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland must travel to Britain to obtain an abortion. All figures relate to women from the Irish Republic unless otherwise stated. Green Paper on Abortion (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999), p. 5. Figures calculated on the basis of the number of women giving Irish addresses to British clinics between 1967 and 1998. 108 26/3/03, 15:12 Women and the economy 109 28 All-Party Oireachtas Committee, Fifth Progress Report: Abortion (Dublin: Stationery Office, 2000), p. 86. 29 Ibid., p. 86. 30 E. Mahon, C. Conlon and L. Dillon, Women and

in The end of Irish history?

six countries (Czech Republic, Spain, the UK, 160 Base to end year percentage change 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Bulgaria Romania Poland Lithuania Latvia Hungary Estonia Slovak Republic Portugal Slovenia Luxembourg Czech Republic UK Malta Belgium Netherlands France Croatia Spain Ireland –20 Greece 0 Figure 17.1  Change in monthly minimum wages at current prices, national currency 2008–16 Source: Eurostat database online (extracted 21 August 2016). Minimum wages and wage-setting systems in Greece and the UK 333 $30,000 2008 2015 $25

in Making work more equal

change. The French party system, the logic of rassemblement, and the union de gauche The advent of the Fifth Republic brought with it a new electoral system for presidential and legislative elections, specifically designed to preclude the perceived systemic weaknesses of the Fourth Republic. The two-ballot majoritarian system contained institutional constraints requiring parties to reach a 12.5 per cent 1 threshold in the first ballot of parliamentary elections, and the rule that only two candidates progress to the second ballot of presidential elections. These

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Implications for the party system

restricted and temporary defensive arrangement of SFIO, Radicals and centre oddments in ‘Republican Front’ alliances excluding the by-now pariah PCF. Under the Fifth Republic, the growing reality of bipolarisation drove the left’s leaders to the inevitable – a pact between the PS (as it now was) and the PCF, resting on a detailed and ambitious programme to which the incoming coalition government would be committed. The break-up of the Common Programme alliance generated sufficient movement to bring about Mitterrand’s 1981 win and, significantly, for him to feel obliged to

in The French party system
Racism, immigration and the state

subdivided further in terms of ethnicity, tribal group, caste, gender, age and social class, such that they are far from constituting a homogeneous group. Although exact figures are difficult to calculate, the main countries of origin of asylum seekers seem to be Nigeria, Romania, Moldova and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1992, Ireland received only thirtynine applications for asylum. By 1996, this figure had risen to 1,179; it had risen to 7,724 in 1999 and to 10,325 in 2001 (Figure 4.1). In total, there were approximately 40,000 applications for asylum in Ireland

in The end of Irish history?