The Security Council, 2. Decides
to authorize the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps,
in consultation with the Government of the Republic of the
Congo, to provide the Government with such military assistance
as may be necessary until, through the efforts of the Congolese
Government with the technical assistance of the United Nations,
one. Indeed, with 4.8 percent of its GDP going to the army, Greece spends more on defense than any other NATO member. Turkey by comparison allots 4.4 percent of its GDP to defense. Five percent of Greece’s labour force is employed in the military industry, again the highest percentage in NATO. And, Greece clearly means business, declaring that it will go to war should Turkey attempt to mine the Aegean’s continental shelf’s minerals to a depth of 200 meters or attack the Republic of Cyprus. Having stationing troops on the island which, acting as a tripwire, will
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn
this time until the 1970s, the Federal Republic insisted on representing
Germany alone, that is, to the exclusion of the German Democratic Republic,
through the so-called ‘Hallstein doctrine’. The latter signified that only countries that did not have diplomatic relations with East Germany (excepting
the Soviet Union) could have similar relations with West Germany.
See e.g. Kissinger (1994, Ch. 18).
Charles de Gaulle’s thinking on Europe evolved remarkably from his wartime
exile to his presidency under the FifthRepublic. During and immediately
Macroeconomic policy in
the Celtic Tiger: a critical reassessment
The miraculous turnaround in the fortunes of the southern Irish economy
during the 1990s fooled most experts. The upturn began in the early
1990s, following one of the worst economic periods in the history of the
Irish state. The economy then ‘took off’ in 1994 for seven years of sustained high growth that earned the Irish Republic the popular name of
the ‘Celtic Tiger’.
The Celtic Tiger emerged from a historic expansion in the United
States that was centred on the information
refugees cost an additional $1.3 billion or
around one-fifth of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1992. As a result of
war damage on industry, the GDP in 1992 was less than half the 1989 GDP.4 The
economic situation was made worse by the decision of the Croatian National
Bank (Hrvatska Narodna Bank – HNB) to finance the 1991 war by printing
Yugoslav banknotes, which inadvertently helped to fund the Serbian war effort
through the cross-border transfer of notes, which was still possible prior to the
1991 ceasefire.5 In 1992 inflation reached 765.5 per cent and in 1993 it
Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland must
travel to Britain to obtain an abortion. All figures relate to women from the
Irish Republic unless otherwise stated.
Green Paper on Abortion (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1999), p. 5.
Figures calculated on the basis of the number of women giving Irish
addresses to British clinics between 1967 and 1998.
Women and the economy
28 All-Party Oireachtas Committee, Fifth Progress Report: Abortion (Dublin:
Stationery Office, 2000), p. 86.
29 Ibid., p. 86.
30 E. Mahon, C. Conlon and L. Dillon, Women and
six countries (Czech Republic, Spain, the UK,
Base to end year percentage change
Figure 17.1 Change in monthly minimum wages at current prices, national currency
Source: Eurostat database online (extracted 21 August 2016).
Minimum wages and wage-setting systems in Greece and the UK 333
The French party system, the logic of rassemblement, and the union
The advent of the FifthRepublic brought with it a new electoral system
for presidential and legislative elections, specifically designed to preclude
the perceived systemic weaknesses of the Fourth Republic. The two-ballot
majoritarian system contained institutional constraints requiring parties
to reach a 12.5 per cent 1 threshold in the first ballot of parliamentary
elections, and the rule that only two candidates progress to the second
ballot of presidential elections. These
and temporary defensive arrangement of SFIO, Radicals and centre
oddments in ‘Republican Front’ alliances excluding the by-now pariah PCF.
Under the FifthRepublic, the growing reality of bipolarisation drove
the left’s leaders to the inevitable – a pact between the PS (as it now
was) and the PCF, resting on a detailed and ambitious programme to
which the incoming coalition government would be committed. The
break-up of the Common Programme alliance generated sufficient movement to bring about Mitterrand’s 1981 win and, significantly, for him to
feel obliged to
subdivided further in terms of ethnicity, tribal group, caste, gender, age
and social class, such that they are far from constituting a homogeneous
group. Although exact figures are difficult to calculate, the main countries
of origin of asylum seekers seem to be Nigeria, Romania, Moldova and
the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1992, Ireland received only thirtynine applications for asylum. By 1996, this figure had risen to 1,179; it
had risen to 7,724 in 1999 and to 10,325 in 2001 (Figure 4.1). In total,
there were approximately 40,000 applications for asylum in Ireland