Shaw’s reasoning that it was better for intellectuals
and writers to work together against the strictures of war. In July 1917 Shaw
dined at J.M. Barrie’s in the company of Arnold Bennett, H.G. Wells and Thomas
Hardy; three months earlier, he had joined with Wells, Bennett and John
Galsworthy in protesting at the ban on the export and foreign sales of the
Nation, imposed due to a perceived editorial policy of preaching peace by negotiation.
In 1915, Shaw had begun work on ‘More Common Sense About the War’
and though this was never published, parts of it appeared in
Graph 1 Printed plays featuring magic users, by gender
Source: Figures are compiled on the basis of the entries for
‘witch’, ‘wizard’, and related terms in Thomas L. Berger,
William C. Bradford, and Sidney L. Sondergard, An Index
of Characters in Early Modern English Drama: Printed
Plays, 1500–1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1998). Plays surviving only in manuscript – including
Middleton’s The Witch and Munday’s John a Kent and
John a Cumber – are excluded.
, commonly upon the Holy Days in most places of your
Realm, there be plays of Robin Hood, Maid Marion, Friar Tuck …
How much better is it that those plays should be forbidden and
deleted and others devised to set forth and declare lively before the
people’s eyes the abomination and wickedness of the Bishop of Rome,
monks, friars, nuns and such like, and to declare and open to them
the obedience that your subjects, by God’s and man’s laws, owe unto
115 Scot, v.8, p. 108.
116 Margot Heinemann, Puritanism and Theatre: ThomasMiddleton and
anticolonial voices that includes J.J. Thomas, Sri Aurobindo, Joseph Casely
Hayford, Claude McKay, Rabindranath Tagore and Sol Plaatje.9
I emphasise these elements and shifts in order to underscore my contention that postcolonial studies has always been a field of divergent orientations, and that Marxist and anti-colonial perspectives have acquired
more popular currency than was theirs in the 1980s and early 1990s. But
this is not to suggest that there is now no need for a collection of ‘contraventions’: the critical tendencies that I engage with in this book remain
‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott
Robertson, Legitimate histories , p. 13.
ThomasMiddleton Raysor (ed.), Coleridge's miscellaneous criticism (London, 1936), p. 332; quoted in Robertson, Legitimate histories , p. 13.
Duncan, Modern romance and transformations of the novel , p. 59
the course of the poem something like
idolatry of Daphne, as Oram notes; “Daphnaida,”147).
Alcyon is sorrow, and sorrow is he, but he is supposed to be a man, or
perhaps the pastoral equivalent, a “jollie Shepheard swaine.” More so than
the critical portraits of character types found in the formal verse satires
of Joseph Hall, ThomasMiddleton, John Marston, and others, Spenser’s
criticism of “the excessive mourner” seems to target a particular individual, Arthur Gorges. Yet the point he makes by reducing a putatively
human character to a figure so “flat” that he
Jesuits from France 1757–
1765 (London: Yale University Press, 1975), p. 233.
27 J. Black and R. Porter (eds), Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century History (London: Penguin, 1996), pp. 83–4, 151, 166, 187, 198, 538, 627.
28 Clark, English Society, p. 289.
29 R. Sullivan, John Toland and the Deist Controversy (Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1982), p. 190.
30 Gay, The Rise of Modern Paganism, pp. 375–85, Thomas Woolston, Anthony
Collins, Thomas Morgan, John Toland, Conyers Middleton, Matthew Tindal,
Montesquieu, Diderot, Freret, Boulanvilliers, Voltaire.
discussions, see Dube, Stitches on Time .
Stoler, “Rethinking colonial
categories”; Stoler, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial
Power ; Thomas, Colonialism’s Culture ; Cooper
and Stoler, Tensions of Empire .
Association and distinction in politics and religion
, vegetable, and mineral, at a government's disposal. Premodern governments did not mobilise the inhabitants of their territories, and dominated rather than ruled them. Thomas Bisson has argued that terms suggesting rule or government are inappropriate for societies which were simply coerced. 34 The privileged made occasional demands on the people for taxes or foot soldiers, and even the taxes and the foot soldiers could be garnered indirectly. The population was occasionally raided rather than regularly ruled. In such societies, dominating elites contribute to the
Thomas, Out of Time .
Each of these copulas is broadly homologous to
the other. Rationalist and progressivist dispositions –
privileging the capacity of reason and seeking to remake the world
in its image – have emerged as often bound to the analytical
model: “the analytical ( analysis being