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Shaw’s reasoning that it was better for intellectuals and writers to work together against the strictures of war. In July 1917 Shaw dined at J.M. Barrie’s in the company of Arnold Bennett, H.G. Wells and Thomas Hardy; three months earlier, he had joined with Wells, Bennett and John Galsworthy in protesting at the ban on the export and foreign sales of the Nation, imposed due to a perceived editorial policy of preaching peace by negotiation. In 1915, Shaw had begun work on ‘More Common Sense About the War’ and though this was never published, parts of it appeared in

in A war of individuals

Female Male 6 4 2 0 1570s 1580s 1590s 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s Graph 1  Printed plays featuring magic users, by gender Source: Figures are compiled on the basis of the entries for ‘witch’, ‘wizard’, and related terms in Thomas L. Berger, William C. Bradford, and Sidney L. Sondergard, An Index of Characters in Early Modern English Drama: Printed Plays, 1500–1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Plays surviving only in manuscript – including Middleton’s The Witch and Munday’s John a Kent and John a Cumber – are excluded. references to

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681

, commonly upon the Holy Days in most places of your Realm, there be plays of Robin Hood, Maid Marion, Friar Tuck … How much better is it that those plays should be forbidden and deleted and others devised to set forth and declare lively before the people’s eyes the abomination and wickedness of the Bishop of Rome, monks, friars, nuns and such like, and to declare and open to them the obedience that your subjects, by God’s and man’s laws, owe unto your Majesty.117 115 Scot, v.8, p. 108. 116 Margot Heinemann, Puritanism and Theatre: Thomas Middleton and Opposition Drama

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
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anticolonial voices that includes J.J. Thomas, Sri Aurobindo, Joseph Casely Hayford, Claude McKay, Rabindranath Tagore and Sol Plaatje.9 I emphasise these elements and shifts in order to underscore my contention that postcolonial studies has always been a field of divergent orientations, and that Marxist and anti-colonial perspectives have acquired more popular currency than was theirs in the 1980s and early 1990s. But this is not to suggest that there is now no need for a collection of ‘contraventions’: the critical tendencies that I engage with in this book remain

in Postcolonial contraventions
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‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott

Robertson, Legitimate histories , p. 13. 95 Thomas Middleton Raysor (ed.), Coleridge's miscellaneous criticism (London, 1936), p. 332; quoted in Robertson, Legitimate histories , p. 13. 96 Duncan, Modern romance and transformations of the novel , p. 59

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Affiliation, allusion, allegory

the course of the poem something like idolatry of Daphne, as Oram notes; “Daphnaida,”147). Alcyon is sorrow, and sorrow is he, but he is supposed to be a man, or perhaps the pastoral equivalent, a “jollie Shepheard swaine.” More so than the critical portraits of character types found in the formal verse satires of Joseph Hall, Thomas Middleton, John Marston, and others, Spenser’s criticism of “the excessive mourner” seems to target a particular individual, Arthur Gorges. Yet the point he makes by reducing a putatively human character to a figure so “flat” that he

in Spenserian satire

Jesuits from France 1757– 1765 (London: Yale University Press, 1975), p. 233. 27 J. Black and R. Porter (eds), Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century History (London: Penguin, 1996), pp. 83–4, 151, 166, 187, 198, 538, 627. 28 Clark, English Society, p. 289. 29 R. Sullivan, John Toland and the Deist Controversy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982), p. 190. 30 Gay, The Rise of Modern Paganism, pp. 375–85, Thomas Woolston, Anthony Collins, Thomas Morgan, John Toland, Conyers Middleton, Matthew Tindal, Montesquieu, Diderot, Freret, Boulanvilliers, Voltaire. 31 Cragg

in The Enlightenment and religion
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Identities and incitements

wider discussions, see Dube, Stitches on Time . 10 Stoler, “Rethinking colonial categories”; Stoler, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power ; Thomas, Colonialism’s Culture ; Cooper and Stoler, Tensions of Empire . 11

in Subjects of modernity
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Association and distinction in politics and religion

, vegetable, and mineral, at a government's disposal. Premodern governments did not mobilise the inhabitants of their territories, and dominated rather than ruled them. Thomas Bisson has argued that terms suggesting rule or government are inappropriate for societies which were simply coerced. 34 The privileged made occasional demands on the people for taxes or foot soldiers, and even the taxes and the foot soldiers could be garnered indirectly. The population was occasionally raided rather than regularly ruled. In such societies, dominating elites contribute to the

in Cultivating political and public identity
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Entanglements and ambiguities

. 8 Thomas, Out of Time . 9 Each of these copulas is broadly homologous to the other. Rationalist and progressivist dispositions – privileging the capacity of reason and seeking to remake the world in its image – have emerged as often bound to the analytical model: “the analytical ( analysis being

in Subjects of modernity