Natalie K. Eschenbaum

-Cartesian understanding of sensation: According to the model of the mind […] inherited from Aristotle, Galen, Avicenna, Averroës, St. Augustine, and Aristotle’s scholastic disciples, all knowledge begins with sense experience. […] The route from the senses to the intellect was not, however, the direct electrical connection between sense organs and brain mapped by modern physiology. […] Rather, a circuit through the heart via the vaporous fluid spiritus was imagined to act as the body’s internal communication system. As a result, sensation was a whole-body experience. To sense

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Sabine Clarke

It is practically a cliché in discussions of the post-war Caribbean to state that the British government did nothing to foster the growth of secondary industry in the British West Indies after 1940, and even purposively frustrated development of this kind. The original fault is said to lie with the Moyne Commission since the Commission’s 1945 report did not expound the need for any major initiatives to foster the growth of industry in the region. 1 In the standard story, a period of indifference by Britain to the development of new industry

in Science at the end of empire
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

Vojvodina. Here, they passed a resolution calling for the publication of a common Serbo-Croatian/Croato-Serbian dictionary. The Novi Sad Agreement, which was passed under considerable pressure from the regime in Belgrade, was meant to determine the rules under which a common language for Croats and Serbs could be formulated. These rules were to be based upon the ‡tokavian dialect spoken throughout Serbia and parts of Croatia (excluding the Zagreb region, Istria and Dalmatia).10 For many Croatian writers, the endeavour to create a common language for the Southern Slavs

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Mike Huggins

between the wars. South Wales, which had the highest percentage of unemployment, showed the least growth.16 The North-east, with the highest unemployment rate of any English region, shows the second lowest percentage growth. So rates of growth were probably linked to regional prosperity. More detailed evidence Off-course betting, bookmaking and the British Table 3.1 Bookmakers in industrial areas of England and Wales, 1921–31 Greater London Lancashire and parts of Cheshire and Derbyshire Yorkshire West Riding and City of York North-east Birmingham and district South

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
An assessment of EU development aid policies
William Brown

and another in Washington . . . close coordination with the Bank will be vital. Indeed the quickest and most effective way to support recipients’ macroeconomic reforms is to work alongside the Bank’ (Patten, 1988). Even at the level of policy statements and the wording of the Convention there were a number of caveats. The original Council declaration, while making claims to a flexible and pragmatic route, nevertheless committed the Community to ensure ‘effective coordination between the Community, on the one hand, and the World Bank and the IMF, which play a leading

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Criminality during the occupation
James E. Connolly

, we are certain, will wish to compromise the good reputation of our region of the Nord, in speculating on the price of goods of which each parcel is due to efforts uniquely inspired by devotion and generosity’.109 However, another poster warned that ‘scandalous operations’ (reselling of CANF goods) continued, which could lead to a cessation of all aid, endangering the lives of the entire occupied population.110 This was not mere rhetoric, as it was only with considerable effort that the ‘soul of the CRB’, Herbert Hoover, and others, had convinced the Allies to allow

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Open Access (free)
Nicholas Atkin

what few possessions were still hers. The bag comprised: One lady’s mantle, grey mixture One pair lady’s shoes One pair snow boots One pair black stockings (new) Lady’s underclothing 200 frs 200 frs 50 frs 50 frs 300 frs In a similar case, a Mlle Le— enquired after a ‘small chromium watch with a waistband of yellow leather’ that she had entrusted to a Mme Lefebvre en route to England from Le Havre.38 While some refugees managed to hang on to some of their most treasured possessions (Orwell observed one with a parrot in cage),39 their lack of material goods

in The forgotten French
Familiarisation and estrangement in Seamus Heaney’s later poetry
Joanna Cowper

the same time, it signalled an inclination to favour a chosen region and keep coming back to it’.23 Critics of District and Circle, in common with critics of the collections that preceded it, charge Heaney with a failure to ‘move on’. Clive Wilmer dismissed the new collection as the work of one ‘cornered by his own genius: writing too many poems that emulate past successes, and shutting off routes to discovery’,24 whilst Stephen Knight finds that Heaney ‘replaces surprise with deliberation’ in a collection that suffers from ‘a lack of edge . . . [and is] nothing

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Deaths at sea and unidentified bodies in Lesbos
Iosif Kovras and Simon Robins

the destabilisation of the Middle East, massive waves of refugees and immigrants from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria and Egypt started inundating the Aegean islands, which have become a principal entry point to the EU (see Figure 8.1). Although accurate data remains unavailable, it is estimated that in the period 2007–8 the number of arrested ‘illegal’ immigrants entering the Aegean was 29,000 (Troumpeta 2012: 21). The construction of a wall in the region of Evros in 2012 in an effort to deter border crossers entering from Turkey, coupled with the turmoil in Syria

in Migrating borders and moving times
Mark Harvey

productive organisation exemplified by Boston’s Route 128 (Best, 2001). See also chapter 9, this volume. The focus is also on vertical constraint in supply chains, the subject of further discussion below. To take another classical sociologist, Simmel, it is possible to envisage forms of competition which, far from acting to the detriment of others, simply spur others to produce greater variety (Swedberg 1994, p. 272). That conception is one which almost presupposes growth, an expanding market, which does not reside in efficient allocation of existing resources, with some

in Market relations and the competitive process