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initiatives, such as the Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), implemented by the Nigerian Ministry of Health and National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) with support from international NGOs, have been viewed with suspicion by some as postcolonial western interventions. In northern Nigeria, rather than legitimating state control of its citizens and promoting feelings of national

in The politics of vaccination

‘pluck’ and worth, offered themselves for military nursing service in their tens of thousands. Some were so wealthy and powerful that, far from finding themselves barred by parental – or any other – authority, they were able, in the early months of war, to take entire hospital units overseas to France and Belgium. It was only in early 1915, after the official military medical and nursing services had established a structured network of hospitals and transport services on the Western 29 Independent ladies Front, that such volunteer units began to come under more

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

, families and local communities. American nurses who worked in Puerto Rico were full participants in the colonial agenda. These nurses not only understood the expectation that they would support the colonial mission, but they agreed with that mission and worked hard to introduce American-style nursing into the Puerto Rican culture. Trained nurses believed theirs was a profession that could transform a culture through women’s education, scientific medicine and proper hygiene. Nurses in public and mission hospitals all preached the same gospel of professionalism and of

in Colonial caring
Polio in Eastern Europe

-making of Eastern European polio vaccine use. In the wake of the threat against the bodies of their citizens and their modernist projects, with a particular, ideological and practical emphasis on disease prevention, most Eastern European countries introduced the Salk vaccine without much public or professional deliberation. This set them apart from many of their western counterparts, where, despite intense state involvement in polio prevention

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation

the twentieth century it became a cornerstone for major transformations in vaccine production capacity and regarding the use of vaccines to fight other diseases in Brazil. I see these vaccines as complex sociotechnical constructs involving many different phenomena: the interactions of microorganisms, culture media and other physico-chemical and biological components that produce substances with alleged or proven immunisation effectiveness

in The politics of vaccination

Nigerians for conversion purposes. In many areas, this continued after independence. Yet as Thomas Csordas argues, in the post-colonial world, the Catholic Church was operating under new conditions, which included a ‘rejection of the missionary work associated with colonialism’.9 While changes in sub-Saharan Africa after independence bore a distinct colonial legacy of education and Western medical facilities, there is a broader narrative to consider that includes how critical moments in specific times and places produced specific practices.10 Diana Solano and Anne Marie

in Colonial caring
The case of the Netherlands

and avoiding any changes were at the heart of the Institute's strategy. There was little or no interest in developing markets outside the Netherlands – a non-commercial culture which some members of staff would later find uncongenial. 18 In the mid-1960s, and in parallel with many institutions elsewhere, RIV turned its attention to two other viral diseases: measles and rubella (German measles). As with polio vaccine

in The politics of vaccination
The origins and endurance of club regulation

Professional Society: England Since 1800 (London and New York: Routledge, 1990) p. 4. 4 For a recent example, see Michael Brown, Performing Medicine: Medical Culture and Identity in Provincial England, c. 1760–1850 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011). For an overview of historical work on professionalisation and expertise, see John C. Burnham, ‘How the Concept of a Profession Evolved in the Work of Historians of Medicine’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 70 (1996) pp. 1–24. 5 Abbott, The System of Professions, p. 2. 6 Perkin, The Rise of Professional

in The making of British bioethics

physical and emotional pain, or impending death, enabled appropriate and supportive care. Assistant Matron 40 Salvaging soldiers, comforting men Gillespie was posted to a hospital in Cairo just as the battle casualties from the Western Desert started arriving: ‘Meanwhile, the Matron, divisional Sisters and I were giving the men tea and cigarettes. Often we picked out men who seemed especially sick or in great pain, and these we got through to the wards straight away.’106 Whilst Gillespie demonstrates the important clinical role of nurses as part of a triage process,107

in Negotiating nursing
Open Access (free)

, and specific campaigns to vaccinate young adults to protect them from the disease. It is clear from contemporary media coverage and internal government files that the British people wanted protection from polio. As in many Western countries, large charities solicited donations to polio research and care and there was extensive interest in the massive field trials of a new vaccine being developed in the United States in 1954 and 1955. 1 Even when the vaccine became available, many of these charities continued to provide aftercare and support

in Vaccinating Britain