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One way to Europeanisation

Justice and Home Affairs Ministries. The creation of the CFSP also produced some changes in the structure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.12 The 1994 administrative reform of the ministry created the unit of Common Foreign and Security Policy which ‘inherited’ the European Correspondent Service. According to their own competencies, all the other ministries are involved in EC/EU matters. Apart from the Ministry of Finance, that deals with all the ECOFIN issues and is one of the most directly involved in European affairs, another important ministry is the Ministry of

in Fifteen into one?
Scenarios in south east Europe

1930: 161; Roberts 1969: 11; Castellan 1994: 44). Owing to these circumstances, the new landowners quickly ran into debt and because of the inadequate banking system of the times were compelled to borrow from boyars, large tenants, or usurers at exorbitant interest rates. Another strategy was to transfer the land back to the former owners and toil again on the estates, basically as before. Either way, researchers agree that within a few decades neo-serfdom had been established and that in Romania around 1905 the gap between large and small property ownership exceeded

in Potentials of disorder

against the background of ongoing entangling infrastructural, resource and security needs among these very states. While loaded with powerful connotations, the term ‘interdependence’ may be appropriate in describing numerous FSU bilateral relationships. Second, we turn to underlying resource and economic realities which structure states’ actions, using the limited trade data available to explore systematically the potential for a ‘common economic space’ among FSU states. Our desire is to balance the predictable focus on dynamic, country-specific considerations by giving

in Limiting institutions?
Introduction and overview

play a role in constructing and sustaining inequalities, whether by lobbying for deregulatory reforms, unbundling production structures in ways that fragment work, or evading rules designed to secure fair and equal treatment and to enhance job quality. Political and economic actions are thus continuously shaping the trajectory and country specificity of work and employment inequalities in the context of shifting international patterns of production organisation, industrial relations, gender relations and demographic changes such as population ageing or migration

in Making work more equal

believing in the idea of a self-correcting form of reason – a thought rearticulated by C. Wright Mills in the 1960s when he would declare that Dewey’s work lacked an account of the power structures of the modern capitalist social order (Mills 1964). Even sympathetic interlocutors like Robert Westbrook (1991, 2005), Michael Eldridge (1998) and Cornel West (1989) appear to suggest that Dewey provided far too few concrete practical means to achieve his own democratic ends. As Richard Bernstein (2010: 87) puts it, Dewey’s idea of democracy as way of life 76 John Dewey

in John Dewey
A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?

to HE graduates fell by 19 per cent since the late 2000s. Women make up 45 per cent of HE graduates and, since the ending of the state job allocation system in the 1990s, have encountered increasing sex discrimination in employment largely due to their mothering role (Cooke, 2012). While labour regulation is in place to protect female workers against unlawful discrimination, non-compliance is the norm, even within the state sector and government organisations (Cooke, 2001). For example, in the banking sector where more than half the workforce are female graduates

in Making work more equal
Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation

banking systems and communications technology. These processes and relationships point to the complex and globally integrated nature of war economies, challenging images of war economies as simply being the direct economic transactions between combatants and traders within a given conflict zone – a complexity that will be further considered throughout this book. Conceptualising a peace economy and transformation At this point, it is useful to consider how a war economy can be distinguished from its natural antonym – a peace economy. In the most basic sense, the two can

in Building a peace economy?
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’

policy in relation to different groups of workers and social agendas. The ways in which working time, pay systems and training are structured needs to be understood in terms of their contradictory effects; and while the issue of gender is just a part of this chapter the relevance of such studies is that they ask us to focus on different state or regulatory projects and how they intertwine and even contradict each other. Meardi and colleagues (2016) have similarly argued that a gender-sensitive perspective has enriched discussions on the state in labour and employment

in Making work more equal
The effects of gender, households and ethnicity

’ (Rubery, 1992, 1993). Their innovative and significant contribution was to make a much stronger link to including a parallel analysis of the sphere of social reproduction (Picchio, 1992). This referred to institutions supporting the reproduction of labour, including the family as well as other significant institutions, such as school timetables and working-time norms. The organisation of these institutions, essential to the way in which the sphere of social production was structured, affected the forms and levels of female labour market participation and the patterns

in Making work more equal

quotes, index levels and industry research reports. With regard to residential mortgages, Lowitt noted that the company had sold $11bn and bought about $6bn, across the capital structure and loan types including Alt-A and subprime, ‘giving us a good transparency in our pricing’. 17 But the analysts representing their competitors were not impressed by Lehman's valuation procedures, although they appeared to accept Lehman's replies. Prashant Bhatia, Citi analyst, mentioned the $54bn of residential and commercial mortgage exposure

in Lehman Brothers