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were legislators’ in order to consider which principles and policies they would adopt using public reason.12 If they find a discrepancy between the principles and policies they would adopt in public reason, and the principles and policies adopted by their actual political representatives, then they have a duty to use democratic means to change the way in which their representatives legislate. Rawls’s public reason demands a personal attitude of engagement because it is realised in a process of deliberation between citizens. For a person to determine how to present

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics

a democracy: FAD9 10/17/2002 6:03 PM 158 Page 158 Federalism and democratisation in Russia 1) All citizens must have the right to vote, with no exclusion based on sex, race, opinion or religion, 2) voting must be secret so as to minimize potential intimidation, 3) the election must be regular: it must be held at steady intervals, as prescribed by law, 4) the whole process must be fair, devoid of violence or fraud and, 5) finally, the election must be competitive, that is to say, all positions can be contested, all groups or parties may run candidates and

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia

visions of consumers, are introduced into the design process, we need first to appreciate the origins of and stages in formulating innovative ideas. Although the marketing literature often talks about the pre-eminence of consumer demand, in the three areas studied producers clearly did not start with the questions of what people might need, what their interests were or what they currently desired. Rather, these producers were usually aware of technological possibilities, they were aware of their firm’s competitive advantages and they searched for ways in which a

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
The German model of federalism

process, return a number of important functions to the states. Since this was to include the financing of these activities, the support of many governors and interest groups was not very strong, and in the end little actual “sorting out” occurred. But the enthusiasm for federal involvement in so many activities was dampened during the Reagan era, and with the appointment of a majority of conservative Supreme Court judges during the Reagan and Bush Administrations from 1980 to 1992, the Supreme Court has become much less supportive of and even hostile in some cases to

in The Länder and German federalism

representations of otherwise inaccessible end users or customers: to access who the customers were, what their needs and wants might be, and The incorporation of user needs 181 what their use of the product or service was likely to be, and then tried to build them into the design and development process. What are the users’ needs? Concern with meeting user needs more effectively has been one of the responses of telecom equipment suppliers to changes in their competitive environment following deregulation and privatisation, and the technological changes associated with the

in Innovation by demand

provided general and specific guidelines for expected municipal expansion. Plans were made legally binding through ratification by Regional Administration Boards or, for larger and more important plans, by the national government (Lundqvist 1972, passim). The planning process did little to link local development to the scale and quality of natural resources. Increasingly frequent clashes among competitive demands for land and natural resources could not be resolved, and resource issues spanning many municipalities and whole regions were not properly addressed. This led

in Sweden and ecological governance
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Irish co-operative movement represented one of the most important movements in this national process as it aimed to revitalise Irish character with its economic interventions. In this way the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (IAOS) exercised a crucial influence over the form taken by the Irish nation-state as its leaders, organisers and members came together to mould the ‘soft wax’ of Irish society. Historians have long argued over how the political conflict between nationalists and unionists formed the dominant feature of the ‘Irish

in Civilising rural Ireland

10 Central and eastern Europe paul g. lewis The passage of over ten years since the first fully competitive elections should have succeeded in putting the progress of democratization in post-communist Europe into clear perspective. By now we might expect to have a reasonably firm comprehension of how far democratization has proceeded, why – if its achievements are differentiated – it has gone further in some countries than others, and which events and processes have driven democratic change. The looking-glass of democratization studies should in this sense have

in Democratization through the looking-glass

productivity improvements in existing sectors. In this sense the complementarity between variety growth and productivity growth in existing sectors bears a considerable similarity to that between productivity growth in agriculture and investment in the new industries during the process of industrialisation (see Kuznets, 1965; Landes, 1998). Further support for the role of variety in economic development comes from Romer’s models (1987, 1990) that include a growth in the number of capital goods among the consequences of innovation. Variety and demand If the overall variety of

in Innovation by demand
The restructuring of work in Germany

deregulated bargaining structures of Anglo-Saxon state-societies are represented as more cost competitive than the dense regulatory constraints of German state-society. In a recent survey of the German economy, the OECD observe that ‘labour market institutions are adjusting, but not yet sufficiently to cope with the substantial labour market imbalances persisting in Germany’. On the basis of this representation of the problem, they advocate deregulatory interventions, arguing that ‘the authorities should support the process of introducing greater flexibility into the wage

in Globalisation contested