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Mike Huggins

, the Worksop Manor Stud, the Exning Stud, the Sledmere Stud and the Ballykisteen Stud in Ireland, sold so many. Some breeders were breeder-owners, breeding and racing their own horses, and prepared to trade potential profit for the pleasure of ownership. Their Breeders and owners motives varied, but some at least were less concerned with success per se than with trying to improve the breed. The duke of Westminster, for example, cared little for racing, but devoted ‘his time, attention and money to breeding bloodstock’ at his Eaton Hall Stud.5 Kingsclere Ltd, a

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Understanding environmental security

Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace

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Jeffrey Sosland

economists argue, governments can often procure resources through trade (‘virtual water’ or buying water intensive products, such as cotton and oranges through international trade instead of producing it domestically). Additionally, technology has made it possible to develop substitutes for many materials (through desalinisation for fresh water), greater efficiency and conservation (Deudney, 1990: 470

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David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

Symons, is the ‘barrier between life and death slighter than among pitmen’, and consequently there was an ‘awe, partly religious, and greatly superstitious’ that ‘obtains amongst the people and check[s] vice’. In mining areas, he claimed, children were ‘less lawless, and more subordinate to parental control’, and women too were less liable to the demoralisation found in the cotton manufacturing districts of north-west England.1 Symons’ association between ‘uncertainty of human life caused by the frequency and terrible nature of accidents in mines’ and low levels of

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Introduction

Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage

Christopher T. Marsden

Common carriers in mediaeval times included farriers and public houses (every horse to be shoed and person to be allowed shelter without discrimination between travellers). In Lane v. Cotton (1701), Sir John Holt CJ stated: ‘If a man takes upon him a public employment, he is bound to serve the public as far as the employment extends; and for refusal an action lies, as … Against a carrier refusing to

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Gareth Millward

  Supposed importation. b   Supposed infection from imported raw cotton. c   A further 33 cases (including 10 deaths) occurred in the Southend and Merseyside areas. It is possible that these infections were derived from these importations. d   Variola minor . e   Suspected importation. Child's mother developed modified smallpox. Source : Adapted from TNA: MH 154/404, Importations of smallpox into England and Wales 1936–1970. Britain's public health responses to smallpox were well established, and the

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Brian Hoggard

derive from the late seventeenth century. In his Late Memorable Providences, published in 1691, Cotton Mather described how witch-bottles contained, ‘Nails, Pins, and such Instruments . . . as carry a shew of Torture with them’.11 That defender of the reality of witchcraft, Joseph Glanvill, related a tale of witchcraft involving witch-bottles. He tells of a woman whose health had been languishing and how a travelling cunning-man diagnosed that the cause of her malady was a ‘dead Spright’. He recommended that her husband, ‘take a Bottle, and put his Wife’s Urine into it

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Peter Morey

, the exact reason for the flight from Iran to India has itself become something of a contentious issue among twentieth-century Parsi scholars. The traditional view was that the Persian Zoroastrians who migrated found Muslim rule intolerable and set out to find a place where they could practise their religion undisturbed. However, it has also been suggested that ‘“the migration of the Parsis to the west coast of India was not so much a flight as a readjustment of commercial patterns which had arisen prior to Islam” wherein Parsi dominance of trade with India had been

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The students

Life and opinions

Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

mill, and had been by turns a cotton spinner, a joiner, and director of a number of small businesses. At the time of his retirement, at the age of sixty-four, he had been an insurance broker. Rod Cox, when in his early thirties, became General Secretary to the Students’ Union for the session 1979-80; he had left school at sixteen, spent a little time at Plymouth Polytechnic, departed to follow the hippie trail to the Middle East, and entered the University of Manchester chap 4 23/9/03 1:16 pm Page 69 The students: life and opinions 69 to read Philosophy when

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Patrick Doyle

an economic depression. The Rochdale society served the working classes in an industrial cotton town that experienced a long-term downturn in living standards. This retail society marked a breakthrough in the modern co-operative movement. Other retail societies modelled on Rochdale were founded over the following years. The ‘Rochdale Principles’ also served as a template for other co-operatives that emerged around the globe in subsequent decades. At the heart of the modern co-operative model sat the democratic principle that entitled one member to one vote

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Mike Huggins

-ordinary recent growth of sweepstakes’ in its report, and while it provided no quantifiable evidence to support this view, the commonality of references to sweepstakes seems to confirm it.131 Racing sweeps operated right across the spectrum of class, and could be organised by high-status groups, trade unions, popular charities or publicans. Some sweeps were organised abroad. Just after the war the Calcutta Turf Club had the leading sweep with three prizes of £75,000, £35,000 and £15,000 for the top three Derby horses. The Dublin bookmaker Richard Duggan regularly ran a £25