Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

globe – as did the emergence of the WHO. 7 Thus, while routine vaccination continued until 1971 and ports were monitored for signs of importation, Britain's national protection was to come from international cooperation and a battle fought well away from its own shores. Before 1946 Smallpox was a deadly infectious disease which came in two forms. Variola major had a death rate of around 20 per cent, while the weaker variola minor had a death rate of around 1 per cent. All could lead to excessive scarring and complications in survivors. 8 While public health

in Vaccinating Britain
Forensic and archaeological approaches to locating the remains of Holocaust victims
Caroline Sturdy Colls

narratives will continue to vary. Popular perceptions The deaths and disposals that occurred during the Holocaust resulted in very public and an abnormally high number of interactions between the dead and the living, both at the time and in its aftermath. Many of these interactions were consequently documented by witnesses or were photographed, filmed and broadcast by the media.19 Thus in addition to the materials generated during war crimes trials, after the war sources emerged that further illustrated the nature of the Nazis’ crimes; hence, corpses became a central 168

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

In 1940, diphtheria became the first vaccine of the bacteriological age to be offered free to British children on a national scale. It achieved impressive results in its first years, reducing the case load from over 46,000 in 1940 to just 962 in 1950, and deaths from 2,480 to 49. 1 Medical authorities celebrated this success, but were mindful of the paradox they had created. With diphtheria no longer a common disease, would parents stop immunising their children? And if they did, would a disease that should be eliminated make a deadly

in Vaccinating Britain
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

nine million refugees fleeing to India), which led to the creation of Bangladesh; Vietnam’s overthrow of the heinous Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot in Cambodia (1979) (with up to two million civilian deaths mainly from disease and malnutrition in forced labour camps); and the overthrow of Amin’s odious regime in Uganda (with 300,000 citizens murdered by Amin’s thugs) by Tanzania (1979). Interestingly, all three intervening states did not justify their action on

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Everyday trajectories of activism
Hilary Pilkington

own nor the adopting family, Rachel had stayed Everyday trajectories of activism81 3.9  Rachel: fighting ‘two-tier justice’ in care. Despite this, it was Rachel who looked after her mother through the cancer that eventually caused her death. Rachel’s kind-heartedness could be abused and during fieldwork she ended a friendship with another division member who had started to exploit her generosity. Struggling financially herself, towards the end of fieldwork reluctantly she had taken ‘a step back’. The family thus often constituted in practice an all-too-thin layer

in Loud and proud
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

construction of public memory, because its search and sacralisation had been politically very significant. These were the cases of Italian irredentist Oberdan (executed by Habsburg authorities in 1882 and celebrated after 1918), the four ‘Heroes of Bazovica’ (members of the anti-​fascist and Slovenian secret organisation, ‘Borba’18), and the Slovenian communists whom the regime sentenced to death in 1941, whose most representative figure was Pinko Tomažič. 72 72   Human remains in society Two case studies are examined here:  the war propaganda concerning the foibe (Italian

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

were constructed for the victims later that autumn. The connection between Rammersweier and the commemoration of the murdered Alsatians would again become a matter of international importance in 1951 after one of the monuments was desecrated. Undeniably, the Alsatians’ deaths were a tragedy, particularly for their families and their home region of Thann. Yet a lingering question for historians is why these eleven men received such ­commemorative attention at a time when Europe as a whole was still coming to grips with its millions of dead, 40,000 of whom 140 140

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano, John Harris and Lucio Piccirillo

humans may have the sensation of being free to choose, but their life, death and destiny are predetermined. Thomas Hobbes observed that the notion of freedom for most Greek philosophers was a feature of the state (the polis), and was not a feature of individuals (Hobbes 1651: X, 8). For the Stoics, for Heraclitus and Parmenides, men were free insofar as they were able to accept their own destiny (Palmer 2013). A person is like a dog tied to his chain: he can freely run around, and enjoy his freedom, but only insofar as he stays within the length of his chain. The first

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

diphtheria-tetanus (DT) and whole-cell pertussis vaccines were available. 19 The whooping cough vaccine was successful. Pertussis morbidity dropped significantly over the 1960s, from an average of 122,000 cases (and 374 deaths) per year in the ten years ending 1956, to just 20,400 cases (and 24 deaths) per year for the ten years ending 1970 ( Figure 4.1 ). 20 Figure 4.1 Pertussis notifications, England and Wales, 1940–2005. After 2005, improvements in laboratory testing and notifications mean

in Vaccinating Britain
The tragedy (and comedy) of accelerated modernisation
Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

we made to extricate ourselves from the state of nature throws us back into that same state. The Devil wins; we end up in Hell. We are condemned to ‘a perpetual and restless pursuit of power after power, ceasing only in death’.12 Power, which began as a means to an end, is now an end in itself, the only end. Weber’s critique of the irrationalism of rationalised acquisition,13 and Marx’s critique of capitalism’s reduction of all value to a ‘cash nexus’, the ‘bottom line’,14 is that these are forms of modern nihilism, the catastrophe at the end of the road to

in The end of Irish history?