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Individuals acting together

Keith Graham

”, “nation”, “state”, and “political community” interchangeably’. 6 In a discussion of state authority which is pertinent for considerations of community, Joseph Raz says ‘Throughout the discussion I refer interchangeably to the state, which is the political organization of a society, its government, the agent through which it acts, and the law, the vehicle through which much of its power is exercised’. 7 But

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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

has an idea as to its meaning that swiftly disintegrates when one attempts to analyse or define it. The state and the nation are not identical, even though the two terms are often used interchangeably by politicians, historians and political scientists. The state is, remember, a legal entity that is directed by a government. The nation, on the other hand, may or may not be closely associated with the state. A nation is

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Matthew M. Heaton

return to Nigeria for further care. 4 On 23 February 1956, L.S. sailed on the Elder Dempster ship Apapa , arriving in Lagos some twenty-one days later, repatriated under paid escort at the expense of the government of the United Kingdom. L.S.’s repatriation was not unique. Over the course of the British colonial era in Nigeria, which lasted from roughly 1900 to 1960

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Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women

Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?


Shirin M. Rai

that gender mainstreaming agendas are implemented and issues of gender equality remain in focus in public policy. Gender mainstreaming and national machineries have found added salience in international public policy through UN-led and national governments’ endorsed agreements on these issues, such as the Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Agreed Conclusions1 (see also Staudt, chapter 2, this volume). Certain themes emerge in the analysis that follows. First, are national machineries as state institutions the most appropriate

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Monstrous markets – neo-liberalism, populism and the demise of the public university

John Holmwood and Jan Balon

– which have shifted from direct public funding of undergraduate higher education to what is primarily fee-based funding via a system of publicly supported student loans – the government retains the ability to determine the revenue received by universities and so can maintain compliance from vice-chancellors and representative bodies, while opening the sector to for-profit providers and allowing the title of ‘university’ to singlesubject, teaching-only entities. In this way, despite the UK government proposing the most fundamental changes to higher education, this has

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‘War is never civilised’

Civilisation, civil society and the Kosovo war

Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen

civilisations do – at least occasionally – involve war? However, the construction of the Kosovo war as a defence of civilisation does not seem to vindicate such a reading of the emerging post-Cold War world. On the contrary, Huntington’s conception of civilisation is merely the culmination of a long tradition of conceiving government – as well as relations between governments – in terms of civilisation. This

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Oonagh McDonald

derivatives trades and asset impairment were combined. Lehman had 1.2 million derivative contracts, with a notional value of $39 trillion. ‘That is what the Fed and Treasury did not understand – the worldwide implications of the derivative book.’ In an interview he gave in July 2013, he said that ‘in the Lehman matter, the creditors lost $150bn. That's a $150bn of value out of pension funds and savings’. 2 International derivative contracts were not the only problem. Lehman had over 7,000 legal entities in over 40 countries, of which

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Crisis, reform and recovery

Shalendra D. Sharma

a trigger. The trigger was provided by a loss of confidence on the part of the owners of short-term capital in the Bank of Thailand’s capacity to maintain its fixed exchange rate. Most tragically, this convergence was neither foreordained nor sudden – but had been building up since mid-1996, roughly one year before the baht’s devaluation. 66 Thailand: crisis, reform and recovery Why was this explosive convergence allowed to persist for so long? The answer lies in the political economy of Thailand in the 1990s. Specifically, it is well known that the governments of

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Building blocks of partnerships

Lessons from case studies from the South and North


Rajesh Tandon and Edward T. Jackson

have their own web of relationships across diverse sectors, thereby facilitating new partnerships over time. A common characteristic across many of these intermediaries in the cases described here is their civil society character: they are independent entities which promote this perspective of research partnerships; they may be funded by a university or government or foundation, but they maintain autonomy from their donors; they bring flexibility in their operations (to overcome institutional inertias in universities or governments); they can transcend institutional

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Jocelyn A. J. Evans

Conclusion Jocelyn A. J. Evans The French party system Conclusion Looking at the French party system in 2002 in the wake of the presidential and legislative elections, it is perhaps initially tempting to see abrupt change everywhere. An apparently successful left-wing government is overturned, all its partners losing almost half their National Assembly seats or more. A fractured moderate right, led – if one can use that word – by a president weighed down by corruption scandals and coming out of a largely inactive incumbency, wins almost 70 per cent of the