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Individuals acting together
Keith Graham

”, “nation”, “state”, and “political community” interchangeably’. 6 In a discussion of state authority which is pertinent for considerations of community, Joseph Raz says ‘Throughout the discussion I refer interchangeably to the state, which is the political organization of a society, its government, the agent through which it acts, and the law, the vehicle through which much of its power is exercised’. 7 But

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck

emphasis on terminology, not least because I do not have a better one to offer. So I will accept for the sake of this discussion that the citizenry (we might also call it the democratic people) is the political community that has a claim to self-government, whereas the demos is a functional entity that is constructed for specific purposes of democratic legitimation. The question I want to consider here is the relation between these different demoi

in Democratic inclusion
Sabine Clarke

Caribbean Commission through the 1940s and 1950s. This was in line with the wider ambitions of the US government for a liberalisation of trade in the post-war world and also to ensure that key raw materials produced in the Caribbean, such as bauxite, were made available to US business. It was also considered essential for US security; a more prosperous and unified Caribbean was considered necessary to withstand the threat of communism to an area described as the ‘soft under belly of the United States’. 55 The fact that the US Section of the Commission promoted an entity

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

FAD1 10/17/2002 5:40 PM Page 1 1 Introduction Democracy and democratisation Since the early 1970s a ‘third wave’ of democratisation has swept the world. In the period 1972–94 the number of democratic political systems doubled from 44 to 107. And by the mid-1990s 58 per cent of the world’s states had adopted democratic governments.1 These momentous developments have led political scientists to re-examine the theoretical literature on democratisation, and to compare the current transitions in the post-communist bloc with earlier transitions in Latin America

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

has an idea as to its meaning that swiftly disintegrates when one attempts to analyse or define it. The state and the nation are not identical, even though the two terms are often used interchangeably by politicians, historians and political scientists. The state is, remember, a legal entity that is directed by a government. The nation, on the other hand, may or may not be closely associated with the state. A nation is

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Matthew M. Heaton

return to Nigeria for further care. 4 On 23 February 1956, L.S. sailed on the Elder Dempster ship Apapa , arriving in Lagos some twenty-one days later, repatriated under paid escort at the expense of the government of the United Kingdom. L.S.’s repatriation was not unique. Over the course of the British colonial era in Nigeria, which lasted from roughly 1900 to 1960

in Beyond the state
Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Shirin M. Rai

that gender mainstreaming agendas are implemented and issues of gender equality remain in focus in public policy. Gender mainstreaming and national machineries have found added salience in international public policy through UN-led and national governments’ endorsed agreements on these issues, such as the Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Agreed Conclusions1 (see also Staudt, chapter 2, this volume). Certain themes emerge in the analysis that follows. First, are national machineries as state institutions the most appropriate

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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Monstrous markets – neo-liberalism, populism and the demise of the public university
John Holmwood and Jan Balon

– which have shifted from direct public funding of undergraduate higher education to what is primarily fee-based funding via a system of publicly supported student loans – the government retains the ability to determine the revenue received by universities and so can maintain compliance from vice-chancellors and representative bodies, while opening the sector to for-profit providers and allowing the title of ‘university’ to singlesubject, teaching-only entities. In this way, despite the UK government proposing the most fundamental changes to higher education, this has

in Science and the politics of openness
Civilisation, civil society and the Kosovo war
Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen

civilisations do – at least occasionally – involve war? However, the construction of the Kosovo war as a defence of civilisation does not seem to vindicate such a reading of the emerging post-Cold War world. On the contrary, Huntington’s conception of civilisation is merely the culmination of a long tradition of conceiving government – as well as relations between governments – in terms of civilisation. This

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

derivatives trades and asset impairment were combined. Lehman had 1.2 million derivative contracts, with a notional value of $39 trillion. ‘That is what the Fed and Treasury did not understand – the worldwide implications of the derivative book.’ In an interview he gave in July 2013, he said that ‘in the Lehman matter, the creditors lost $150bn. That's a $150bn of value out of pension funds and savings’. 2 International derivative contracts were not the only problem. Lehman had over 7,000 legal entities in over 40 countries, of which

in Lehman Brothers