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which different paths of modern development were open and potential for broad international relationships was undecided. The Chinese order in East Asia 189 Conclusion 189 and the intercession of the West in the mid nineteenth century were contexts of encounters and inter-​civilisational engagement in which Japanese perspectives on civilisation were generated. Asia and the Pacific were often debatably represented in Japanese perspectives. Solidarity-​based versions of relations with Asia competed with expansionist and militarist ones, and ultimately failed to

in Debating civilisations
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Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’

consequences of this kind. How successful have they been? Process-​based approaches take the persistent ambiguities that haunt conceptions of civilisations as a point of departure. Analyses of civilisational processes are well known in comparative sociology. But they have also gained prominence in political science and international relations. A notable exponent of the processual image from sociology is Norbert Elias. The dissemination of his ideas is a contemporary development and therefore subject-​matter for the next chapter. One point to note is that his historical

in Debating civilisations
Rousseau’s and nationalism

state of war’, wrote Rousseau in Du Contrat Social, ‘cannot arise from simple personal relations’ (III: 357). As always fascinated by paradoxes – (‘I would rather be a man of paradoxes than a man of prejudices’, he wrote in Emile (II: 82)) – he noted the tragic irony that states which had been established to avert civil wars Chap004.p65 88 11/09/03, 13:35 A civic profession of faith 89 gave rise to international wars. As he put it in The State of War, ‘we see men united by an artificial concord, assemble to slaughter one another, and all the horrors of war arise

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

opportunities for moving beyond ‘unicausal theorising’, by integrating three important subdisciplines of general international relations theory: regime analysis, negotiation theory and intergovernmentalism. The wider theoretical concern revolves around an understanding of the dynamic interplay between a liberal interpretation of national preference-formation, the rationality of actors pursuing their interests at the central level and the distinct nature of intergovernmental bargaining within the Community system. The welcoming aspect of this analysis is that it links the

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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political life becomes seriously flawed. One prong of this critique applies to international relations theories that consider states as homogenous entities endowed with a singular will while the other prong attacks theories of democracy that fail to consider how all democracies are constituted through their horizontal or vertical relations to other polities. Neither is my claim in section 2.1 of chapter 1 that boundaries

in Democratic inclusion

who have subsequently adopted post-​functionalist positions. Also, the critical dialogue they engaged in with modernisation studies conditioned their subsequent trajectory. If international relations scholars were added, Peter Katzenstein would be in the lead, with Brett Bowden, Martin Hall, Patrick Jackson, Robert W. Cox, Sadik Unay, Muzzafer Senel and Pavlos Hatzopoulos following. Others could make the list, including the proponents of the call for a Dialogue of Civilisations, such as Fred Dallmayr, Michalis Michael and Fabio Petito. The group identified by

in Debating civilisations
Jürgen Habermas and the European left

constellation as a multi-layered global order, consisting of a reformed basis of solidarity within the nation state, the development of new transnational forms of political community such as the European Union beyond the nation state, and the enhancement of international laws and institutions regulating relations between states and guaranteeing human rights at the global level. The idea of the postnational constellation entailed a differentiated and multi

in Antisemitism and the left
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A pluralist theory of citizenship

such claims emerge only once individuals are involved in relations with several states (e.g. through migration or a history of shifting borders). A normative theory of citizenship in the international state system must therefore distribute inclusion responsibilities between states and appropriate norms will generally depend both on the relation of individuals to states and of states to each other. The flaws of a single-polity perspective become

in Democratic inclusion
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

Pacific. But, as argued in Chapter 4, experiences of colonial intrusion, dispossession, subjection and dis-​embedding can be considered forms of engagement. It was also the case that forms of engagement in general were far from alien to islander societies. As an old world, Pacific civilisation was already relational and had a paradigm of engagement in the relations of exchange that islander societies practised and the cosmologies that endowed meaning to their connectivity. When European colonisation incorporated Oceanian societies into larger trans-​national networks of

in Debating civilisations

Politics & International Relations , 2 ( 1 ).

in The Third Way and beyond