, they managed to persuade their constituencies and public opinion, as well as foreign governments and world media, of the justification of Turkey’s policies. It is not very often one comes across a decade in which two successful politicians like Ozal and Ecevit lead Turkey.
Even Kurdish organizations softened when the idea of removing the ban on Kurdish-language television and broadcasts was given a boost following the announcement of the December 1999 Helsinki decision. (In August 2002, the Turkish Parliament finally approved these concessions
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
more holistic view by treating both the symptoms and the illness’s aetiology. This orientation focuses primarily on preventive medicine whose goal is to maintain a steady stream of antibodies against the spreading of disease, mostly by the inculcation of democratic values and tolerance, and by providing the opportunity for the ‘civil society’ to take an active role in the political theatre. Nevertheless, the holistic approach does not neglect the treatment of the symptoms of the illness in the event that, after all the preventive measures have been taken, extremism
too many imports being attracted in, the opposite
measures were used, i.e. higher taxation and reduced public spending.
Both the Conservative and Labour parties based economic policy making on
these principles, with only minor variations.
Competition between the parties was not, therefore based on principles, but on
how effectively they could manage the economy on keynesian lines. Elections
were fought less on how best to run the economy than on other issues such as
competence, foreign policy, industrial relations policy, the running of public
services and which
develop the idea that disputes over the way technology is described should be understood as a struggle for control of its code, Feenberg draws on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse. Foucault’s studies of madness ( 1985 ) and medicine ( 1986 ) showed that bodies of scientific knowledge are both reliable representations of social reality and inscribed in practices that produce the world they describe. Psychiatry is both objective knowledge regarding mental illness and, as discourse, itself an objective structure that works through institutions and practices to sort the
, which are treated as potential negative feedback to be managed by the system. According to technocracy, expertise ought to be authoritative and able to circumvent communicative or deliberative procedures aimed at securing democratic legitimation. Technocracy was often the implicit, dystopic situation for the first generation of critical theorists because it represented the clearest formulation of a society whose sole organising principle was a narrowly construed rationality, resulting in a society so irrational no one would choose to live in it.
Although his work
they managed to tow the burning wreck out into the Black Sea and so avoid a colossal disaster. As it was, maritime traffic in the Straits was interrupted for an entire week, causing huge delays and thus increasing the odds on further accidents happening. In the midst of all this, the Turkish Daily News suggested, sarcastically, that someone should “try that in the middle of New York City or any major American or European port city.” 17
Nor was that the end of it. In December 1997, a Norwegian tanker heading towards Western Europe, with 30