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The emergence of a new major actor in the European arena

dissenting opinion within some national political parties5 has created a climate more critical towards further developments in European integration. However, the perception by the general public and political elites still confirms a very positive attitude and integrationist approach to European issues. EC budgetary reform and the future enlargement to the CEE candidate countries will be a crucial test for such a consensus.6 Spain’s membership of the Union has had a direct impact on the consolidation of the democratic functioning of its political system, the acceleration of

in Fifteen into one?

economic development has had stronger democratizing effects in European countries than elsewhere, an observation that was particularly rooted in the relatively recent south European cases. Both internal and external factors were involved here, the latter primarily based on the powerful role of wealthy close trading partners and the strong political influence they exerted through the promise of EU membership. Economic development has been claimed to increase the chance of a peaceful evolution towards democracy. Political and economic outcomes have also been 160 AREAS

in Democratization through the looking-glass

spite of regional party organizations of varying strength, are hierarchically organized and member-based, programmatic, disciplined, and led by leaders, usually the Chancellor, certain prime ministers of the Länder, or other well-known office holders, who are elected by party organs for that purpose.2 The parties are financed by a mixture of private and public funds, the latter of which are very generous by international standards.3 Much of the private funding comes from the large dues-paying membership or supporters who, also in contrast to the United States, receive

in The Länder and German federalism

no fault of President Nixon’s if the special relationship languished’.3 As the argument runs, Heath was determined to attain membership of the EEC because this would bolster a stagnant British economy, and promote Britain’s international influence. France, having vetoed British membership on two previous occasions in 1963 and 1967, had to be convinced that Britain could be a ‘European country’. Accordingly, Heath disassociated from the US–UK special relationship in order to prove his European credentials, and thus undermine the perennial French fear that Britain

in A strained partnership?
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain

McKay. His membership of the WSF provided McKay with important insights into the politics of the metropolis. He found himself in ‘the nest of extreme radicalism in London’. He got to know the politics and personalities of Britain’s far-left groups. He also became acquainted with different sections of the trade union movement – especially with the shop stewards, which appealed to

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

feminisation of the workforce Ireland’s membership of the EU, infrastructural development and a decreased economic dependence on the United Kingdom had transformed the Irish economy by the late 1970s. Irish women grew up expecting and demanding a life outside the home, wanting to be more than wives and mothers. Between 1971 and 1983, the number of women in the workforce grew by thirty-four per cent. The number of married women in the workforce increased by 425 per cent over the same period. More remarkable are the changes that we have seen over the past decade, in the era

in The end of Irish history?

involving Britain’s antipodean Empire in unity, Clark Murray’s empire-wide ambitions included plans to set up an imperial chapter in London as soon as possible. 12 That ambition, however, tested the limits of ‘Empire unity’ for a Britain that still considered itself the superior core of that Empire. Clark Murray’s ambitions of empire-wide membership were soon crushed, blocked by the rival British

in Female imperialism and national identity

democracy contributed to the third vote-losing aspect of Tory organisation: falling membership. Across the democratic world, declining party membership is an almost inevitable consequence of socioeconomic change. Yet, with social deference in decline, it is even harder to recruit members if they are to be denied substantial influence. By 1997, even Tory activists felt that the party was ‘still a feudal oligarchy, where power is concentrated in the leader’s office’.9 Conservative membership looked in poor health and was said to be no higher than 400,000 in 1997.10 To make

in The Conservatives in Crisis
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legislature for Scotland. 11 February 1975 Thatcher becomes Conservative leader, winning on the second ballot (having defeated Heath on the first ballot on 4 February 1975). 5 June 1975 Referendum on continued membership of EEC, following renegotiation of terms of membership. 67.2 per cent vote in favour of remaining a member. This is the first national referendum in British political history

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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A bounded security role in a greater Europe

yesteryear have become ‘European national parties’ as they enter into domestic coalitions that barely move from centre left to centre right. As Europe expands to the east, criteria of membership are comparable to the criteria that were implicitly outlined earlier for the Euro-Atlantic community, including democratic structures, market economy and the ability to compete. For 50 years, the United States remodelled the countries of western Europe to its image, and now it is their turn to refashion eastern Europe to that new image. Some ambivalence remains, however. A united

in Limiting institutions?