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Montevideo Convention criteria but are denied recognition as sovereign (even if they possess special status in international society). Contrary to the constitutive theory, entities such as Kosovo may declare independence and be recognized by many (even dominant) states but are denied sovereignty. In both cases, arguably, United Nations membership – which neither aforementioned state

in Recognition and Global Politics
Open Access (free)
‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’

years. In 1967 its organisation extended over almost the whole territory of the FRG, relying heavily on the still existing party organisation of the DRP, with a presence in 75 per cent of all German cities and all ten states (Niethammer 1967: 28). Within a short period of time its membership increased dramatically. The party had started with only 473 members at the inaugural meeting in November 1964, yet at the end of 1966 this figure had risen to over 25,000. This was probably for a large part the spillover effect of the ongoing electoral successes. The party began

in The ideology of the extreme right
The Women’s National Commission

: history From its creation until 1998 the WNC was a membership organization. It comprised member organizations serviced by civil servants. There were fifty member organizations and thirty-five associate member organizations, and the role of the civil servants was to present to government the views of the members. The Commission itself was composed of ‘fifty women elected or appointed by national organizations with a large and active membership of women’ (Cabinet Office, 1998:3). Member organizations, which included the women’s sections of the major political parties

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
The Indian experience

house is called the Rajya Sabha (States’ Assembly) with 250 members. Representatives are chosen on the basis of first past the post by singlemember constituencies for the lower house and proportional 224 CASE STUDIES representation by state assemblies for the upper. In 1991 women formed 5.2 per cent of the membership of the Lok Sabha and 9.8 per cent of the membership of the Rajya Sabha (Swarup et al., 1994:362). This was lower than the preceding Parliament of 1989. Further, ‘it can be safely presumed that membership of women in [political] parties does not exceed

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

membership determines the ‘thick’ political conceptions that real people, not the abstractions of liberal theory, carry around with them. As with communitarian and multicultural theory, nationalism emphasises the importance of community membership. Nationalists argue that ties grounded in the justice of institutions, or ties grounded in pragmatic calculation, are not strong enough to bind people to the state. Solidarity that is

in Political concepts

changed as a result of different treaties and enlargements. These internal changes affected EU relations with Latin America both positively and negatively. On the one hand, the Iberian membership of the EU affected EU policy positively towards Latin America; on the other hand, policy towards Central and Eastern European countries which culminated in the 2004 enlargement negatively affecting EU–Latin America relations. This monograph has analysed the reasons behind the EU’s strategic actions towards Mercosur from 1985. The dependent variable has been the degree of

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
Relations between the European Union and Mercosur

which has led to a greater degree of economic openness in the Latin American markets. Thirdly, others have suggested that the change in relations between the EU and Latin America came as a direct result of the EU’s involvement in Central America. Furthermore, some authors have argued that the membership of Spain and Portugal of the European Union instigated a change in EU–Latin America relations. Finally, the end of the Cold War and the changes in the international balance of power have also been cited by those who claim that the change in EU–Latin American relations

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency

distinctive. But that is not to say that there has been no impact of EU membership. The UK constitution is in the process of undergoing major reform as part of the Blair government’s political agenda of modernisation. European integration is among the stimuli for this change. Political context The United Kingdom was not a founder member of the European Communities. Neither of the two main political parties was prepared to 2444Ch17 3/12/02 2:07 pm United Kingdom Page 389 389 engage with European organisations that went beyond intergovernmental forms of co

in Fifteen into one?
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One way to Europeanisation

2444Ch15 3/12/02 15 2:06 pm Page 355 Maria João Seabra Portugal: one way to Europeanisation Introduction: from enthusiasm via Euro-pessimism towards active support Portugal joined the European Communities in 1986, following a process of negotiations that had lasted eight years. The request for membership was made in March 1977, at a time when the country was still deeply engaged in the process of democratic transition. Internally, the European option was considered to be decisive to the consolidation of democracy. Shortly after the 25 April 1977 coup d

in Fifteen into one?

Conservative politics of nationhood under William Hague, focusing on the ‘English Question’ and the politics of ‘race’. Policy towards the European Union (EU) is examined in Chapter 8. The end of Empire, moves towards membership of the European Community (EC), devolution and immigration posed significant challenges to the dominant One Nation perspective in the 1960s. Two contrasting positions on how to adapt the Conservative politics of nationhood emerged. Edward Heath proposed EC membership, Scottish devolution and a liberal perspective on race relations. Enoch Powell

in The Conservatives in Crisis