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Managing the plural left

Implications for the party system

David Hanley

necessarily equal. Second, these alliances have usually been fragile, tactical and short term. The object has been to win an election and govern as best one could, basing government on the rapports de force within the winning coalition. There has been nothing permanent about the pact; sometimes there has been no agreed programme or even clear understanding beyond discipline républicaine. Partners have felt free to drop out (PCF refusal to join government in 1936) or change partners in mid-term (the Radicals on numerous occasions between the wars, the SFIO after 1947) or

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Ross M. English

pushing for large increases in defence spending caused the national debt to escalate. Reagan and his supporters aimed their fire at the inability of the US Congress to relinquish their attachment to spending on pork barrel projects and inefficient Assessing the US Congress 167 programmes. Congressional attempts to pass legislation which would force spending down (most notably the 1987 Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act) proved ineffective and by the time of the 1992 presidential election the budget deficit was only a little short of $300 billion. The state of the economy was

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Oonagh McDonald

the world and Lehman Brothers were not understood either by the regulators or by Hank Paulson, although he was formerly the chief executive of Goldman Sachs, and others, during that fateful summer of 2008. When large banks fail, ‘they are more likely to fail together precisely because they are more interconnected through asset and short-term lending’. 34 However, the study fails to recognize the significant risks to the ability to manage posed by over-complex banks. Size and complexity are not always a disadvantage; indeed, there may be value in

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Raymond Hinnebusch

its share of production decreased from 20 per cent in 1970 to 10 per cent in 1991. Yet, in the same period that its imports had risen from 12 per cent to 50 per cent of its consumption (1970–91), OPEC had diluted the control of US MNCs over oil produced abroad. To be sure, in 1990 only about 12.5 per cent of US oil consumption was from Gulf sources and, in the short run, Iraq and Kuwait together supplied only 7 per cent of world oil demand. However, looking to the longer term, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia controlled 40 per cent of world oil reserves. The

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Paul Cammack

the ‘second-phase’ neo-liberal approach which moves on from initial short-term ‘shock treatment’, aimed at dismantling structures hostile to the operation of markets, to the construction for the longer term of enduring institutions which will sustain markets and capitalist disciplines into the future. It is not surprising, then, that the policies Giddens recommends can all be

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Amikam Nachmani

was a heaven-sent gift for those Europeanists who adamantly preached that Turkey would never be able to keep up with EU standards. In 1996 Turkey had a trade imbalance of 22 billion dollars, 11 percent of its GDP. In mid-1999 the country had a domestic debt of 37 billion dollars and foreign debt of 101 billion dollars – equivalent to half its GNP. This debt is owed by Turkey to European, American and Japanese banks. The government, who desperately needs cash flow to repay its debts, continues to issue high-interest, short-run, inflation

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Margaret Hanly

members of Lancashire vestries or other prominent ratepayers were often the local manufacturers or merchants whose goods would be made available for sale to the vestry for this purpose.7 In practice, even the briefest survey of Lancashire poor law records reveals that parish officers faced a constant tension between thinking long-term and reacting to short-term local influences on the supply of or demand for relief. Thus the presence The economy of makeshifts and the poor law 79 of vagrants in the Lancashire market town of Garstang posed a persistent problem for the

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Steven King and Alannah Tomkins

towns or rural areas, for instance – and more widely the role of marriage and remarriage in the overall welfare package assembled by early modern families may have varied according to the prevailing causes of poverty and marginality. A further and overlapping literature that we must address is the increasingly sophisticated discussion of early modern propensities to vary household structures and to be tied into complex neighbourhood, friendship and occupational networks which could be energised when sudden and short-term or gnawing and longterm poverty overtook an

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Privatisation

Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies

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Jenny H. Peterson

control of resources, there is little change in how resources are acquired, with power and force still characterising who is able to control key resources as opposed to processes based on equity and justice. Of course in all cases, cautious operational actors will try to minimise such capture and prevent the above scenarios from developing. However, the use of short-term control strategies is often ineffective and the long-term hope that actors will eventually ‘fall in line’ with the fundamental principles of neoliberal economics is faulty, based more on desire than

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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

), the short-lived ‘concerted action’ system of tripartite discussion about economic parameters and, more recently, the ‘Alliance for Jobs’ ( Bündnis für Arbeit ) which has renewed that system of tripartite discussions have been significant elements of the ‘German model’. The term is very similar in its meaning to the ‘Rhineland model’. [See also: co-determination; Rhineland model] Mogadishu Affair