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Open Access (free)
The study of European Union relations with Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

the US in certain crises. Second, the EU needs to accept the ‘complex interdependence’ that affects foreign policy, therefore the EU will have to cooperate with other states. Could Hill have been calling for multilateralism? In 2003, the EU launched the European Security Strategy. Much of the discussion in the literature about the concept of the EU as a strategic actor has been developed in relation to this policy. For example, Quille (2004) takes from the European Security Strategy the main goals of the EU as being: to tackle perceived external threats, to extend

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
A political–cultural approach
Lisbeth Aggestam

an independent defence component. It is therefore not surprising to note the unease with which the French reluctantly recognise American leadership in European security through NATO. In Germany, the idea of exerting leadership is formulated very cautiously to avoid any association with historical analogies. Nonetheless, the role of leader is conceived of as emancipation from the past, in the sense

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Adrian Hyde-Price

political decisions; and the European Commission, which, according to the Maastricht Treaty on European Union, is to be ‘fully associated’ with the work carried out in the CFSP field. In addition, a ‘policy planning and early warning unit’ has been established in the General Secretariat of the Council under the responsibility of the High Representative. With the launch of the Union’s European Security and

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Thomas Robb

Reductions, European Security Conference, undated (circa October 1971), NSCIHF, National Security Council Meetings, Box H-032, NPMP. 197 NSC Consideration of NATO Issues, Mutual Force Reductions, European Security Conference, Memorandum for the President from Henry Kissinger, undated (circa October 1971), NSCIHF, National Security Council Meetings, Box H-032, NPMP. There is a burgeoning literature about the CSCE. For a good overview see: Angela Romano, From Détente in Europe to European Détente: How the West Shaped the Helsinki CSCE (London: Peter Lang, 2009). 198

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

Napoleon at Austerlitz in 1805, where utter confusion, rivalry and vanity led to total defeat? Finally, how much would British rejection and American coolness to the idea have affected its viability over time? NATO was already in existence, and the United States was determined to have an important say over West European security affairs. An EDC, especially one without the United States’ most important ally, the United Kingdom, risked creating a ‘decoupling’ of the old world from the new – an unattractive possibility given the growing US–Soviet rivalry with Europe as its

in Destination Europe
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Kerry Longhurst

ending of the Cold War gave rise to a range of pulls and pressures both from within and from outside of Germany to respond to the changes in the European security environment and to rethink the existing tenets of West Germany’s security policies. The statements quoted above from Josef Joffe and Wolfgang Schlör capture the fundamental quandaries that confronted German thinking about the use of force and the role of the armed forces in the wake of the events of 1989–90. At stake at this time was how the new Germany’s perspectives on the use of military force could be re

in Germany and the use of force
Is the CFSP sui generis?
Jakob C. Øhrgaard

War redefining European security interests. But pressures also came from within, especially in terms of a British determination to re-assert leadership within the European Union and seeing defence and security as an area of comparative advantage for so doing (White, 2001 : 118). Somewhat paradoxically, the key to understanding these adaptations appears to lie in the very fact that CFSP has been perceived by its members to

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Thomas Robb

. Gaining economic advantage from Europe’s reliance upon US military guarantees was also a peripheral objective of the ‘Year of Europe’. Nixon was not prepared to forfeit the political relationship with Europe solely to achieve economic advantages.24 This was a position Kissinger agreed with. As one of Kissinger’s closest advisers reminded him, it was not in the interests of the US to sacrifice the US–European security relationship for ‘citrus fruits’.25 For Kissinger, political considerations would predominantly outweigh economic factors. US policy sought to mitigate the

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Organisation. Responsible for the collective security of Europe and the Western World. Comprises most European states plus the USA and Canada. • WEU: Western European Union. The section of NATO comprising only European states. • CFSP: Common Foreign and Security Policy. The European Union’s commitment to adopt agreed common foreign policies. • CESDP: Common European Security and Defence Policy. The agreement to co-operate on internal defence matters. • PSC: Political and Security Committee. A permanent body whose role is to provide political direction for any military

in Understanding British and European political issues
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer and Eric Remacle

into account a third dimension of the Europeanisation process; that is, variable geometry. The shaping of concentric circles, differentiated security dilemmas and interlocking regional security subsystems and organisations (Remacle and Seidelmann 1998 ) as aspects of variable geometry characterise the evolving nature of the European security system since the end of bipolarity. In addition, variable geometry

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy