had recommended to him by saying ‘it will make you a
local anywhere’, and entered the address where he was expected
within the next hour. From there on he followed the visual and audio
instructions emitted by his phone and reached his destination in
thirty-five minutes. With the aid of the publictransport network and
its information maps as well as with the smartphone, the navigation
atmospheres and the sociality of publictransport. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28: pp. 270–289.
Boria, E. (2013) Geographers and maps: A relationship in crisis. L’Espace Politique, 21.
[Online] Available at: http://espacepolitique.revues.org/2802 (accessed 3 August
Burns, R. (2014) Moments of closure in the knowledge politics of digital humanitarianism.
Geoforum, 53: pp. 51–62.
Caquard, S. (2014) Cartography II: Collective cartographies in the social media era. Progress
in Human Geography, 38: pp. 141–150.
-resolution colour versions, please see
the Open Access edition at http://doi.org/10.9760/9781526122520.
1 For a more detailed overview of the problems of representation in practices and discourses of mapping, see Del Casino and Hanna (2006).
2 A more contemporary equivalent of the Tabula Peutingeriana perhaps being the nowcommon publictransport maps created in the wake of Henry C. Beck’s 1933 circuit-like
redesign of the London Underground’s various lines: a remarkably clear but also highly
abstract representation of a series of locations with little affordance made to
Conservatives paper argued that the party had to employ a new language and
address popular concerns about their attitude to public services. Yet by 2001
the Tories lacked positive symbolic policies on health and education, even
though they had shifted to the left on public spending.11 Labour was vulnerable on public services: many middle-class voters relied on publictransport,
the NHS and state education and were disappointed by Labour’s record. But
the Conservatives were not seen as credible: voters did not prioritise tax cuts
first. This certainly seems
to imply that there is no ‘correct’ course that we may identify. Making Sims use publictransport might increase or decrease the growth
rate of your city, increasing industrial density may increase pollution while providing much needed revenue, but the authorial choice
of which might be most satisfying is handed over to the reader.
Even if the city is razed to the ground by alien invaders, the player
has not necessarily ‘lost’. There is a potentially satisfying plot available in rebuilding your city from the rubble, of starting again and
struggle unjustifiably postpones
the need to reform society along environmental lines. Planning, tax,
regulations and other reforms are needed now to encourage a green lifestyle,
including recycling, greater use of publictransport and energy
Liberals argue that the
‘market’ can help solve most environmental problems. The key
issue is that ‘public
per month was a tiresome constraint on
social activity. Since this minority came mainly from the articulate
middle classes, who had greater access to the media, its views tended
to be heard more at the time and to survive disproportionately in
the record. But when most people travelled it was by publictransport. Here the effect of the war was simply to reduce the number of
buses and trains available. Conscription reduced the workforce of
busdrivers, conductors and maintenance workers; the conversion
of the motor industry to the production of military vehicles and
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
mobility are concepts situated in time-spaces and therefore ‘always differentiated and differentiating’. When exploring the wellbeing-mobility nexus in London and São Paulo, the authors demonstrate that in both cities navigating urban spaces can be a barrier to experiencing happiness. Interviews with cyclists in these two cities show how community-led initiatives are filling gaps left by the state in the provision of transport. In São Paulo, for example, while publictransport may be available, there are spaces that are considered unsafe and out of reach despite existing
.53 The Bureau was responsible
for designing publictransport including river boats, railway carriages,
Moscow trolley buses and, most prominently, the atomic-powered icebreaker ship Lenin (designed in 1953–55).54
Meanwhile, some restructuring occurred within the Moscow and
Leningrad Unions of Soviet Artists (MOSKh and LSSKh). The sector
of decorative-ornamental art in MOSKh was renamed the ‘section of
decorative-applied art’ and divided into three sub-sections: decorative-
ornamental works, textiles and applied art.55 This section, like its counterpart in Leningrad
service’ requirements as the medical profession or publictransport.38 In this instance the importance of the arts
to local economies had the effect of making creative labour mandatory.
Jean-Paul Sêtre, architect of Corbigny’s cultural policy, took advantage of Boulaud’s animosity toward the striking intermittents to expand
Corbigny’s cultural offerings. Initially Sêtre offered Metalovoice and
another striking Nevers-based company, TéATR’éPROUVèTe, space
in the Saint Leonard Abbey, an eighteenth-century Benedictine abbey
repurposed as a cultural centre. TéATR