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Paul Henley

commercial film-making to feature exotic subject matter in the period prior to the Second World War was the genre that came to be known as the ‘travelogue’. Although the distinction may often have been blurred in practice, the travelogue may be differentiated from the expedition films of the interwar period such as those discussed in Chapter 1 , on the grounds that whereas the latter category consisted of films produced as a by-product of journeys that had some other purpose (exploration, the collection of zoological specimens, archaeological research, sometimes merely

in Beyond observation
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. 1 It addresses how pitiable and vulnerable children from the world’s warzones – specifically groups of orphaned, abandoned and injured children from

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti, and Cecilia Sironi

the crowds: ‘The Italian people have created the Empire with their blood’, he professed; and ‘That commits you in front of God and in front of men for life and death.’11 Such speeches have been considered by historians as a prelude to the Second World War. The organisation of Army healthcare during the campaign, 1935–36 The main official documents relating to health in the Italian Empire are L’importanza dell’organizzazione sanitaria nella Guerra d’Etiopia (The 170 A sample of Italian Fascist colonialism importance of health organisation during the Ethiopian

in Colonial caring
Jenny Edkins

young collaborator. By 1941, in the middle of the Second World War, it was some time since they had seen each other. Bohr was living in occupied Denmark, and Heisenberg worked as a scientist under the Nazi regime in Germany. Their days of collaboration were over. But in the autumn of 1941, Heisenberg travelled to Copenhagen to give a lecture. He also arranged a meeting with Bohr. The purposes and outcome of this meeting have been the subject of much speculation and curiosity ever since.14 Interest focuses on the role each of the protagonists was playing in the

in Change and the politics of certainty
The Tokyo trial of Japanese leaders, 1946–48
Peter Lowe

World War rendered it urgent to decide, in 1945, how German and Japanese leaders should be punished. Some of the principal members of the Churchill coalition government preferred summary execution. This was the preferred solution of Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden, the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary, and, interestingly, of the chief law officers of the Crown, the Lord Chancellor, Viscount Simon, and the Attorney General, Sir Donald Somervell.8 The Truman administration believed that it was necessary to establish formal tribunals comprising judges, appointed

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

relation to Robert Burns: I don’t think we need a national bard. I think folk call him that out of laziness, because they can’t be bothered to read what’s been written since. It’s a monolithic attitude, where every era seems to have enshrined one male. A vibrant culture, as we have, is in the hands of many, many people. (quoted in Dunkerley, 1996)13 Hugh MacDiarmid, the writer who bestrode the Scottish literary renaissance (in many ways defining it), had an iconographic function similar to Burns in Scottish intellectual and literary life after the Second World War. The

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
James E. Connolly

37 v 1 v Sexual misconduct Notions of misconduct were always heavily gendered  –​it was seen as a fundamentally female phenomenon.1 This ties in not only with the demographic of the occupied zone but also with the idea that complicity reflected weakness and submission. Similar ideas persisted after the Second World War.2 Philippe Nivet states that in 1914–​18 this gendering of what he calls collaboration was the cornerstone of the non-​occupied French view of the occupied populations as ‘Boches of the Nord’.3 In the occupied Nord, many locals also engaged in

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
James E. Connolly

compared to that of the Second World War, a handful of publications did exist. The most celebrated and successful one resulted from a highly organised v 247 v 248 The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914–18 operation: in Roubaix, l’abbé (Father) Pinte, industrialist Firmin Dubar, professor of pharmacy Joseph Willot and other collaborators fashioned an illegal radio receiver to pick up Allied transmissions from the Eiffel Tower (although they were not the only people to do so).3 This information was used from February 1915 to create a clandestine newspaper whose

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Open Access (free)
Nicholas Atkin

. The air arm was a shadow of its former self, while the navy, the most advanced section of the French military, had an ignominious campaign: sunk by the British at Mers-el-Kébir in July 1940, and scuttled by the French themselves at Toulon in November 1942. To read the many histories of the French armed forces during the Second World War is, then, all too often to read the history of the Free French.5 Little mention is ever made of the sizeable numbers of French sailors and soldiers, over 10,000 in total, stranded in camps in Britain at the time of the defeat, and

in The forgotten French
Sabine Clarke

Second World War: a career in the making”, Canadian Journal of History 16 (1981), 68–85. 10 TNA, CO 852/588/2. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 C. Whitham, Bitter Rehearsal: British and American Planning for a Post-War West Indies (Westport: Praeger, 2002), p. 38; C. Fraser, Ambivalent Anti-Colonialism: The United States and the Genesis of West Indian Independence, 1940–1964 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994), pp. 59 and 64. 14 Parker

in Science at the end of empire