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the cartonera movement is one in which social, environmental and economic factors are intermeshed, it renders problematic the concept of sustainability as three distinct ‘pillars’. The ‘three pillars’ – suggesting solid, separate columns supporting a larger structure – were promoted at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. The logic of the model can be seen in the structure of Agenda 21, the action plan that resulted from the summit (United Nations 1992), which is divided into two sections: the first, ‘Social and Economic Dimensions’, deals with issues such as reducing

in Literature and sustainability
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia

have the right freely to return to their homes of origin’. 16 Another annex created a number of mechanisms to foster the return of refugees and displaced persons. The mechanisms contained in Annex 7 included measures against discrimination and harassment with international monitoring by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 17 This strong commitment to rebuild a multicultural Bosnia

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security

change. Furthermore, the processes of change took place in the context of globalization, which impacted upon the economic restructuring of CEE countries, as well as making demands upon their political structures to democratize. The state structure had to deal with these varied pressures. The Platform for Action of the United Nations’ (UN’s) Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) focuses on state structures for implementing gender mainstreaming (see Staudt, chapter 2 of this volume) under the chapter on national machineries for women. The chapter on national

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Structures and spaces

equality and increase NWMs’ capacities where they already existed. The majority of United Nations member states now have national machineries, a number of them having been established in the 1980s and 1990s. The concept of ‘national machinery’ includes many different bureaucratic units, ranging from ministries to desks, departments or directorates. Some may be located within the President’s or Prime Minister’s office; others may be a portfolio within a state ministry or local administration; yet others may be ministries in their own right. The mandates, responsibilities

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)

) and a population of 109,462 (United Nations (UN) estimate for 2015) have much to say to the wider world beyond offering anti-colonial rhetoric, couched in a smattering of Marxist analysis and mixed with gratitude for occasional national or international handouts during natural disasters? A second tendency of my work arises from an encounter with colonial and postcolonial conditions, both in the

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Racism, immigration and the state

consequence of the labour market dynamism of the Celtic Tiger; a narrative of ethnic and national identity inherited from the process of state formation before and after independence; within the field of international relations, a commitment to constitutional liberalism and the rule of law – this expresses itself in support for the United Nations and the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Migration in Ireland The two central pieces of legislation which currently shape Irish immigration policy are the 1996 Refugee Act (which was not fully passed until

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
The politics of exhumation in post-genocide Rwanda

 teams Set up in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council, the ICTR is dedicated to pursuing and judging those responsible for the genocide. Right from the start, the Office of the Prosecutor decided to focus its efforts on material evidence. For this reason, the use of forensic investigations was encouraged. For the Office of the Prosecutor, such investigations would allow it to counter the classic defence deployed by the accused right from the beginning in 1994, namely to claim that the massacres were committed as a result of ‘popular anger’ or an ‘inter

in Human remains and identification

structures legitimised by ‘democratic’ elections. The willingness on the side of the interveners to hold the representatives of the local political structures personally responsible for certain policy failures and human rights abuses. With regard to this aspect of the international intervention, the main instrument available to the international community has been the Hague War Crimes Tribunal and more generally the United Nations (UN). A strong identity and a common sentiment among the recipients of the foreign intervention that the aims of the intervention are not just

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)

home, or at the highest level of geopolitics in an organisation like the United Nations. From the nineteenth century onwards, a wide range of efforts to formalise the co-operative impulse in the arrangement of social, economic and political relations came to the fore in a response to ameliorate the worst effects released by industrialisation. This book is an attempt to outline a history of one of these formalised efforts attempted in Ireland at the end of the nineteenth century. The history of the co-operative movement in Ireland is one that

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Conceptual and ethodological challenges for comparative analysis

influenced by the ILO’s approach, the European Union (EU) institutions – such as Eurofound (see, e.g., Green and Mostafa, 2012) – and some European governments stand out. Another example is an initiative that originated in 2000 as a series of seminars launched by the joint United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)/ILO/Eurostat task force, which after 15 long years published a statistical framework for measuring the quality of employment (UNECE, 2015). The framework, however, was developed as a complex statistical toolbox rather than an indicator suitable for

in Making work more equal