Open Access (free)
The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion
S.J. Barnett

The discussion of the French experience in this chapter illustrates that the tiny number of philosophes, few of whom were deists, were more bystanders than activists in the major politico-religious events and developments of the century. In fact, they can hardly be termed consistent fighters for toleration, at least as Enlightenment studies have traditionally understood that term. The study focuses on public opinion and broad forces for change, challenging the notion of an all-embracing French absolutism. The parliaments, Jansenists and broad public opinion achieved what the deists and philosophes never even consistently fought for: the suppression of the Jesuits, the development of a de facto toleration prior to the Revolution and the initiation of the demands for constitutional government. The chapter also deals with the emergence of religious toleration in France and the degree to which it was brought about by broad politico-religious struggle rather than by the philosophes.

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
The autonomous life?
Nazima Kadir

Every Saturday night for thirty years, the renowned Vrankrijk, a squatters’ social center, has hosted a dance party which attracts a mix of squatters, punks, artists, radical left activists, hippies, university students, and tourists seeking to taste the underground scene in Amsterdam. Located on a beautiful street in the inner city, the building is enormous, standing four-stories tall, its facade covered by colorful murals in stark contrast to the eighteenth-century dollhouse architectural landscape of

in The autonomous life?
Open Access (free)
Nazima Kadir

Excerpt from interviews: Frederick: In the beginning it’s restricting [not being Dutch]. It’s hard to say where it comes from but in general, new people have to prove themselves in the activist community, I mean, you don’t get a place like this, you know, it’s not for free. When you want to come into a certain group, you need to do stuff for this group that the rest appreciate. It depends on which collective you are working with. Just being there also for a long time

in The autonomous life?
Rumours of bones and the remembrance of an exterminated people in Newfoundland - the emotive immateriality of human remains
John Harries

This chapter tells the story of the Beothuk people in Newfoundland, hunter-gatherers indigenous to this northern island. The Europeans, mostly English and Irish, came in the 18th and 19th centuries. With the coming of the settlers the Beothuk dwindled and finally, in 1829 they were declared extinct. The exact cause of this extinction is still debated, but there is no doubt that the ancestors of many of those still living in Newfoundland were the agents of extermination of a people, whether by disease or genocidal violence.

Since their extermination Beothuk bones emerged from the earth and were sometimes taken away and stored and displayed in museums in Newfoundland, Edinburgh and elsewhere. These bones still exist, now withdrawn from display, but intermittently receiving the attention of oesteoarchaeologists and physical anthropologists, as well as a handful of activists petitioning for their return. This chapter addresses the capacity of bones to speak, to give testimony and, in giving testimony, to make “old acts indelible”. How do these bones trouble and haunt contemporary articulations of settler identity and our ethical engagement with the absent presence of those who have been violently dispossessed?

in Human remains in society
Steven Fielding

were trade unionists and among activists the proportion was even higher.7 Secondly, union branches could affiliate to their local CLP and so send delegates to GMC meetings; in areas dominated by one particular industry this arrangement often gave a single union effective control. Finally, unions commonly made a variety of financial contributions to offset the habitual poverty of most CLPs, which could include underwriting an agent’s salary, sponsoring a parliamentary candidate or granting free use of office space. While, for the most part, they made little use of

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

people have a moral right as human beings to equal opportunity and equal treatment in society. Disabled rights activists argue that it is not enough to be sympathetic to disabled people; more needs to be done to enable them to play a full part in society, including the world of work. A person’s particular disability may preclude them from certain types of work but not all types of employment. Relatively

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Emma Jackson and Roiyah Saltus

Barking and Dagenham because of the cheaper and affordable housing. (Barking and Dagenham Activist Interview, conducted by Yasmin) The philosopher and social theorist Michel Foucault once said, ‘We are in an epoch of simultaneity: we are in an epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed’ ( 1986 : 22). He might well have been in

in Go home?
Open Access (free)
The 1970 general election
Steven Fielding

alone in imagining Labour had secured a remarkably complete recovery in its fortunes; he described other Cabinet members as ‘euphoric’.7 The Prime Minister’s decision was made with little reference to the state of the party in the country, although at the end of April he did tip off the National Agent as to his intentions.8 While by the spring it was thought members’ morale had greatly improved since the previous autumn, many activists – especially trade unionists still resentful of wage controls and In Place of Strife – remained to be won back. A joint meeting in May

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Translatina world-making in The Salt Mines and Wildness
Laura Horak

, their boyfriends, and strangers. Going to the police is not an option when you are afraid they will hurt you or deport you. If you are in the streets you risk being a target. This scene condenses the key themes of this chapter: the structural forces that produce trans women of colour as vulnerable, how some trans activists have organised a political movement that centres the experiences and leadership of the most vulnerable, and how filmmaking can contribute to this project. What happens when we bring together a trans social justice politics attuned to the unequal

in The power of vulnerability
Richard Kelly

democracy contributed to the third vote-losing aspect of Tory organisation: falling membership. Across the democratic world, declining party membership is an almost inevitable consequence of socioeconomic change. Yet, with social deference in decline, it is even harder to recruit members if they are to be denied substantial influence. By 1997, even Tory activists felt that the party was ‘still a feudal oligarchy, where power is concentrated in the leader’s office’.9 Conservative membership looked in poor health and was said to be no higher than 400,000 in 1997.10 To make

in The Conservatives in Crisis