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The first child-witch in Rothenburg, 1587
Alison Rowlands

3 ‘One cannot … hope to obtain the slightest certainty from him’: the first child-witch in Rothenburg, 1587 It is, of course, only with the benefit of hindsight that we can draw conclusions about the relative restraint with which the council in Rothenburg treated witchcraft during the early modern period; this restraint was never a foregone conclusion in any particular witch-trial. The intricate web of factors which accounted for it could be tested to the limits in certain cases when an individual’s story of witchcraft and the manner in which the council chose

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
The ends of incompletion
Chloe Porter

To make something, it might be assumed, is to aim to produce a finished product. This assumption dominates many critical readings of spectator experiences in the early modern period. Stephen Greenblatt’s seminal analysis of Shakespeare’s Henry V , for example, turns in part on the complicity of the audience in the production of the image of the king

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Richard Suggett and Eryn White

religious domain where it acquired special status.44 LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND RELIGION IN EARLY MODERN WALES Religion has frequently been identified as one of the major driving forces behind the growth of literacy during the early modern period.45 In Wales religion was a fundamental motivation for the spread of literacy and – alone among the Celtic languages of Britain – the development of a vigorous print culture in the vernacular. From the mid-sixteenth century, the authorities recognized that unity of religion had to take priority, for the time being at least, over

in The spoken word
Open Access (free)
The historian and the male witch
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

witchcraft’, he focuses on female witches and accusers,and male witches play a minor role. 40 In his important article ‘The making of the female witch: Reflections on witchcraft and gender in the early modern period’, de Blécourt has interesting things to say about male witches in the Netherlands, including the idea that there existed both male and female witch stereotypes. 41 He raises the question of why ‘the making of the male

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Some philosophical obstacles and their resolution
David Heyd

the aftermath of the bloodshed of the wars of religion in the early modern period,12 but can also explain the development of the capacity to tolerate in children. Toleration is, however, trickier than compromise, since it requires the development of a sense of an independent value – that of respect for others. Education to toleration consists in the formation of a capacity to see beliefs and actions not in the light of some impersonally validating criteria but as parts in a coherent whole, constituting a moral personality or character and being the consequence of a

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
A review and manifesto
Alan Warde

become singularised, such that their personal or their social symbolic significance overrides, or obliterates, the fact that they were once purchased. McCracken (1988) offers the example of ‘patina’ on silverware in the early modern period, where tangible evidence of use by previous generations of the family was highly esteemed. 16 Innovation by demand The implications of this were explored tellingly by Dant (1998), who told a story of the career of a kitchen knife which served as a mirror to personal biography – where the passage of time, altered personal

in Innovation by demand
Alex J. Bellamy

tempocentric historiography. Their approach to history emphasises continuity over change and tends to overlook the radical transformations that characterised the early modern period. They also tend to take contemporary ideas about social formation and look for them in antiquity. Finally, primordialists do not adequately address the question of how local identities are transcribed on to the macro-level to form nations or why nations and nationalism became the dominant mode of social organisation when they did. The modernist side of the ‘great divide’ is also problematic. The

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Martin McIvor

to the basic distinction in Roman law between a free man and a slave, and is picked up and redeveloped as a key political idea in Europe in the early modern period (Skinner 1997). According to Philip Pettit, this notion of ‘freedom as non-domination’ offers a compelling alternative to the more familiar liberal idea of ‘negative’ freedom as ‘non-interference’ (Pettit 1999). Even if my freedom of action is not directly interfered with, I may be ‘unfree’ in republican terms if I remain at the mercy of another who might at any point choose to restrain me – just as a

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
The gendering of witchcraft
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

contrary was all around. Having said that, one is forced to ask why witchcraft theorists persisted in stating that women had a greater natural propensity to witchcraft than men did. The situation in the early modern period is analogous to that of the Greek and Roman worlds; as we have seen, ancient authors represented magic as something practised by women, despite the fact that men also practised magic

in Male witches in early modern Europe
S.J. Barnett

, religious, literary, etc.) to the past. The perennial problem is of course how to generalize from those specialized approaches in order to gain some overall understanding of a period. Making academic distinctions between social, religious, economic and political aspects of history, while helping to deepen our historical gaze in some respects, is in itself an intrinsically problematic procedure, not least so in the early modern period. As we shall see, in order to discuss the early modern Church and religion, it is also necessary to discuss politics, economics, social

in The Enlightenment and religion