Jocelyn A. J. Evans

-European equivalent. As we noted in the introduction, such divergence under Parodi’s ‘electoral accordion’ (Parodi, 1997), which expands under PR systems to allow greater fragmentation, and contracts for the two-ballot systems, cannot go without certain osmosis between the levels. Parties which compete at other levels must find it increasingly difficult to reconcile 166 System context differences they have emphasised to form alliances later on. The first ballot allows a certain level of fragmentation, but at the second, can competing parties which have previously differentiated

in The French party system
Robert Andersen and Jocelyn A. J. Evans

bloc. Tripartition and the fragmentation of the right The tripartition argument implies that the extreme right now possesses a basis for long-term stable identification. In other words, the social and ideological characteristics of its electorate should be quite distinct from the two traditional political blocs. This would, of course, give less credence to the protest and populist arguments since it implies that the basis of FN support is not solely due to socially segmented interests or the popularity of its leader. The rise of the anti-system FN during the 1980s

in The French party system
Open Access (free)
Katie Pickles

that fails to encompass the complexities of gender, race and class, and risks a reassertion of Anglo-Celtic dominance. The IODE’s work in the Canadian north at once shows the most complete relocation of Anglo-Canadian identity from British imperial space to Canadian space, and captures the contemporary fragmentation of a previously totalizing Canadian identity. Despite this fragmentation of earlier

in Female imperialism and national identity
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer and Eric Remacle

Treaty, seems to support this trend. Therefore, variable geometry is not only an indication of fragmentation of the Union but also an element of the continuing process of integration. Conclusions The delicate balance between integration and fragmentation is shaping a very peculiar model of foreign policy-making which cannot simply be described as a traditional international organisation nor as a state

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Mark Pelling, Alejandro Barcena, Hayley Leck, Ibidun Adelekan, David Dodman, Hamadou Issaka, Cassidy Johnson, Mtafu Manda, Blessing Mberu, Ezebunwa Nwokocha, Emmanuel Osuteye, and Soumana Boubacar

many cases) in linking communities with the lowest level of government, particularly in informal settlements which are often divided according to tribal affiliation (Mitra et al., 2017 ). The devolved system of governance has proved complex with ongoing challenges, fragmentation and conflicts across all governance scales. The constitution recognises disaster risk management as a developmental challenge that should be addressed at both county and national government levels, as well as local levels (ROK, 2010 ). A National Policy for Disaster Management (ROK, 2009

in African cities and collaborative futures
Open Access (free)
Mark B. Brown

objective, and ‘the people’ are fragmented into a plethora of ever-shifting interest and identity groups. In the United States, for example, millions of citizens questioned the basic legitimacy of elected presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama, driven by concerns about substantive competence Expertise 175 and group identity, respectively. This widespread epistemic scepticism and social fragmentation has led to a ‘radical pluralisation of the forms of legitimacy’ (Rosanvallon, 2011: 8). Government commissions, expert committees and lay deliberative bodies all seek

in Science and the politics of openness
Implications for jobs and inequality
Rosemary Batt and Eileen Appelbaum

have grown. The greater use of business strategies that re-allocate workers across networked organisations has important implications for employment relations and for wages, job quality and inequality.1 More than a decade ago, in a series of important essays written with colleagues,  Jill Rubery drew attention to the blurring of firm boundaries and the fragmenting of work in the UK. Rubery was already a leading scholar of labour  market flexibility and the rise of temporary and contingent jobs in  Europe.  In the research on the fragmentation of work, she moved

in Making work more equal
Douglas Blum

product of heightened international interaction. 31 2504Chap2 7/4/03 12:38 pm Page 32 Security threats Eurasian identity narratives What are the nature and significance of prevailing national identities in post-Soviet Eurasia? The evolution of national identity has produced three broad categories of states: those with a well-consolidated national identity; those where national identity remains contested, but where key cleavages are not ethnic; and those where there is significant identity fragmentation along ethnic lines. What follows is a brief overview which

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Arthur B. Gunlicks

people who may live in distinct parts of the federation that encompasses them, for example, India and Russia, or even Canada with its French-speaking minority in Quebec province, where it is the majority. Federation is a practical alternative to fragmentation into small independent states if there is sufficient recognition among these people of the common economic, security, or other advantages of union that they might enjoy while also retaining some degree of autonomy. A third reason for federation is history. It is difficult to imagine the federations in Germany or

in The Länder and German federalism
Raymond Hinnebusch

process disrupted a multiplicity of regional ties while reorienting many economic and communications links to the Western ‘core’. In reaction, new supra-state ideologies, expressive of the lost cultural unity, were increasingly embraced: Pan-Arabism by the Arabic-speaking middle class and political Islam among the lower middle classes. Both, at various times, challenged the legitimacy of the individual states and spawned movements promoting the unification of states as a cure for the fragmentation of the recognised community. The result has been that the Arab world

in The international politics of the Middle East