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The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

recognise the competence of the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) to consider complaints from individuals. The committee consists of eighteen independent human rights experts that meet three times a year at the United Nations. The ICESCR is the twin of the ICCPR, and was the result of a diplomatic compromise to satisfy the ideological approaches of the two main blocs during the Cold War – individual rights were considered crucial for the West, collective ones for the USSR and its allies. With the fall of the Soviet Union, this separation has blurred

in The freedom of scientific research
Matthew S. Weinert

an embodied norm, meaning one ‘internalized in bodily practices [that] constitutes the subject and his or her recognition by others’ (True 2011 : 76). Hedley Bull considered the brandishing of such norms as ‘equal rights of states to sovereignty, of peoples to self-determination, and of persons of different race to individual rights’ (Gong 1984 : ix) by Africans and Asians

in Recognition and Global Politics
Feminist journals and peace questions
Heloise Brown

who are denied the right to a voice in deciding whether it shall or shall not be laid upon them . . . [L]et the feminine plébiscite be appealed to as having a right to be heard, and who can doubt that the unanimous vote . . . from princess to peasant, would be given for peace between peoples and reunion in homes.16 In arguing that women would not vote for war, Becker used ideas of sexual difference – and to some extent, of class interest – to support her main argument about the importance of individual rights. These sexual difference debates echo the discussions in

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Open Access (free)
Lesbian citizenship and filmmaking in Sweden in the 1970s
Ingrid Ryberg

advocated from the points of view of both authoritative regulation on the basis of what was beneficial for society and individual rights on the basis of helping people. When the RFSL was founded in 1950, the organisation proposed a slightly different view to the dominant medical classification of homosexuality as an illness. According to Andréaz Wasniowski (2007: 223), the RFSL advocated an understanding of homosexuality as not essentially different from heterosexuality, but as a matter of degree on a continuous scale. The organisation’s goals included ‘humanitarian

in The power of vulnerability
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

, 266. 46 See Farmer, Martyred Village, especially ch. 5, ‘The Bordeaux trial’. 47 L.  D. Clay, Decision in Germany (Garden City, NY:  Doubleday & Company, 1950), pp. 421, 436. The Basic Law established a democratic government with an independent judiciary system and guaranteed individual rights and freedoms. 48 Ibid., p.  428. An Occupation Statute governed the authority of the Commission. Clay records that ‘It [the Occupation Statute] conveyed full legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the federal state and the participating states except in the fields of

in Human remains in society
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

privatization of ethnicity in liberal democracy maximizes individual rights but minimizes collective rights. 43 Examples of countries that embrace civic nationalism are the United Kingdom and the United States. These states possess a civic national identity where democracy, citizenship and national identity are closely intertwined with the state. With the individual’s rights at the

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

exclusion. Thomson 25 contrasts six ‘aims’ of classic and new social democracy (though these aims are not policy goals in our terms, and are best considered as broad themes): fairness; individual rights; ‘aiding the market’; individual initiative to achieve enhancement; the state as enabler; and community. Finally, Bresser-Pereira 26 distinguishes the New Left from the Old Left

in The Third Way and beyond
Australia, France and Sweden compared
Dominique Anxo, Marian Baird, and Christine Erhel

universalism, egalitarianism and individual rights. The Swedish model is also founded on a strong political commitment to the goal of full employment. Sweden stands out as providing one type of societal system based on high employment rates, with only a small gender gap; a high incidence of dual-earner households; extensive and generous family policies; strong welfare support systems for childcare, parental leave and elderly care; and egalitarian wage structures, including relatively low gender wage inequality. Furthermore, the overall political context, which is

in Making work more equal
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

territorial boundaries, market economies, private religiosity, and the priority of individual rights? Or will it be Islam, with its emphasis on the universal mission of a transtribal community called to build a social order founded on pure monotheism natural to humanity? ( 1993 : 117) Islamic fundamentalists answer this

in Redefining security in the Middle East
The logics underpining EU enlargement
Helene Sjursen and Karen E. Smith

the common values of the member states. But one important omission, as compared with the Copenhagen conditions, should be noted: protection of minorities. Minority rights are controversial within the EU, as the member states are divided over the concept. France, for example, is more inclined to emphasise individual rights and has neither signed nor ratified the Council of Europe’s Framework Convention on National Minorities, whereas

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy