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G.M. Peter Swann

broader history of economic thought. When that has been done, it will become clear that the picture is much more interesting. The economics of consumption 29 We start in this section with some of the pioneers of political economy, from Smith (1776) – the ‘giants’ of our subject.5 Although Smith is widely thought of as one of the founder of free-market economics, his consumers are capable of greater flamboyance than the consumer of the last section. Indeed, Smith was well aware of some of the interdependences in demand, in a passage anticipating Veblen’s (1899

in Innovation by demand

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Mick Moore

downgrading the general historical significance of natural resource endowments is not well founded. The political economy of a given state’s primary source of revenue continues to matter, especially so if that revenue comes from a resource readily able to be controlled by unaccountable elites. A second lies in the ambiguity of the notion of ‘institutions’ as drivers of economic growth, and the impossibility, to date, of testing that proposition such that it can be distinguished from some version of ‘politics matters’ (Toye 1995, Woodruff 2000). The most widespread

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
James Bowen and Jonathan Purkis

this section each address notions of being and becoming within different areas of anarchist theory and practice. Indeed, it is the ontological dimension of contemporary anarchism – especially the placing of Self within a wider ecology of global relations, human and non-human – which distinguishes anarchism from radical perspectives that retain too much focus on materialism and political economy. The fact that anarchism has largely premised its critique on a psychological dimension to power relations, not just a material one, has been an advantage in this respect

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
Peter Burnell

disciplines have stood still but have evolved over time, so they all exhibit their own domestic disputes concerning democracy and its relationship to surrounding factors. Even in Cerny’s conclusion on the relatively youthful study of international political economy (IPE) we find different accounts of the future possibilities for democracy and democratization in a globalizing world. More particularly, at regional levels such as Latin America Philip tells us that the very meaning of democratic consolidation is very far from being settled. In parts of Africa and Asia where

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

exploring the intellectual development of the co-operative movement, it has been shown that the political economy of co-operation affected the development of Irish nationalism in the early twentieth century. One way in which Sinn Féin nationalists differentiated themselves from their constitutionalist rivals who dominated Irish politics was in the attitude towards co-operative societies. Sinn Féin's appropriation of a pro-co-operative position positioned the party as sympathetic to the socio-economic concerns of the farming population. Before the

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Shaun Breslin

separation are found in the communist party states within the region, where the socialist system all but demanded EAST ASIA 179 state control over society and economy. But it is also evident in other states – states that at first glance might appear to be Western-type democracies. Van Wolferen (1990), for example, has long argued that analysts from the ‘West’ fail to understand Japan because they start with false assumptions. The concept of a separation between ‘public’ and ‘private’ that lies at the heart of some investigations of political economy is, according to van

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Louise Amoore

), Panorama, 2000; Channel 4, 2000). The effect is to bring less comfortable and optimistic images of globalisation to our armchairs. At the same time, scholars within international political economy (IPE), international relations (IR) and sociology have called for the essence of politics to be restored to our understandings of globalisation and restructuring (Marchand and Runyan, 2000; Hay and Marsh, 1999; Bauman, 1998; Beck, 2000a). This book acknowledges and develops the emergent challenge to the economic and technologically determinist representations of globalisation

in Globalisation contested
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.