Robert Murphy

Gentleman (1957) and Dickinson’s Queen of Spades (1948) and Gaslight (1940). The high estimate put on the English films of Joseph Losey, the determination to disrupt the aura of reverence around the British Documentary Movement, the questioning of the importance of Free Cinema and scepticism about the status of The Third Man (1949) as a masterpiece, were shared by other young critics, particularly the

in British cinema of the 1950s
S.J. Barnett

, Toland, Tindal, Collins (listed as a freethinker), Erasmus Darwin, Diderot, Thomas Paine and Alberto Radicati – across the whole of Europe in the whole of the century. 27 It hardly needs pointing out that this figure does not, no matter how much we might qualify the term, constitute grounds for the identification of a movement, even an English one consisting of relatively ‘small numbers’ as Clark has put it in his English Society 1688–1832 (1985).28 It is hardly surprising, therefore, that one commentator has ventured that scepticism had less support from the 1690s to

in The Enlightenment and religion
The discourse of spirits in Enlightenment Bristol
Jonathan Barry

, reflecting on Mr G——s’ family and insinuating that the justices of the country ought to punish them for that which is really an affliction permitted of God’. A number of themes are being developed here, including the fear, widespread at this time, that the press could be abused to harm private reputations,15 together with the associated denigration of coffee-house debating and Walpolean Whiggery (both implied by ‘Robbin-hood’) as centres of a shallow public opinion based on destructive scepticism.16 The believers had begun to develop their public case. We do not know who

in Beyond the witch trials
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India
Niels Brimnes

again Chief Minister of Madras, a position he resigned in 1954 after falling out with the dominant faction of the Congress Party in Madras. 64 Rajagopalachari was also a close friend of Raman and shared his scepticism towards BCG vaccination. From 1952 he communicated his views on BCG in letters to the Union Minister of Health and ardent supporter of BCG, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. 65 With his resignation the Indian authorities and their UN

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Complementary or incompatible ideals?
Andrew Mason

-used term, both in ordinary language and in academic debates. So much so that we are entitled to some degree of scepticism about whether it can serve any useful analytical purpose. In my view, however, it is worth retaining the term, so long as we are clear about the different notions it is used to express.14 To develop my argument against Young, I propose to distinguish between an ordinary and a moralised sense of community by reference to two ideal types.15 According to the first ideal type, which I shall refer to as the ordinary concept or ordinary sense, a community

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Elite beliefs about witchcraft and magic
Alison Rowlands

delusion, and legal caution Most elite scepticism was expressed in the records of witchcraft cases from Rothenburg about witches’ sabbats and the flights to them. The jurists and clerics who commented on these issues tended to believe that sabbats did not take place in reality, but that self-confessed witches and other people who claimed to have seen witches’ gatherings had been deluded by the devil into imagining that they had done so. This view was first recorded by jurist Cunradt 56 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY Thalhaimer in 1582, when he suggested that

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Problematising the normative connection
Eşref Aksu

for the UN’s role in it. 13 Originally the UN was devised by victorious states to regulate ‘inter-national’ behaviour following World War II. In that sense, the organisation was intended to play a regulatory role in inter-governmental governance, with a special emphasis on peace and security. The Charter embodies states’ scepticism as to potential UN intrusion into

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

1974, and it was effectively cited to justify the launch of the global polio eradication programme in 1988. 30 Public health histories since smallpox eradication Contemporary funders, organisers and managers of immunisation campaigns in both the developed and developing countries are well aware of widespread public scepticism if not opposition. While physical attacks on vaccinators, though not unknown are rare, opposition

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic
Laura Chrisman

whether, in contrast, he is arguing for slavery’s basis in irrationality. The relationship and his argument are mystified and obfuscatory, and all that is clear to me is Gilroy’s desire to invite scepticism towards rationality’s emancipatory qualities. His own systematic isolation of slavery from any economic context adds to this ambiguity, and his argument at the end of The Black Atlantic for the linkage of Jewish Holocaust thinkers (including the Frankfurt School) and their experience with black diasporan experience does nothing in itself to elucidate his position

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Mick Moore

scepticism about – the benefits of natural resource exploitation? The ‘resource curse’ is neither natural nor inevitable. It is rather the contingent outcome of a set of economic and political conditions that happen to have afflicted many poorer countries particularly intensely over recent decades, especially the period since around 1970. These conditions include in particular: (a) very high international income inequality between most (rich) resource importing nations and most (poor) resource exporting nations; (b) the Bayly 10_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:57 Page 262 262

in History, historians and development policy