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limitations are real, and are not under the control of some deeper self or purpose, but are the self and purpose, with its strengths and weaknesses. Acted out and observable identities, the ‘habitus’ of Bourdieu, have all the importance of the cloak which Clytemnestra threw over Agamemnon, in its constricting as well as its enabling possibilities. And like the one which enabled Agamemnon to be murdered, while it can be changed, precisely because it is a human creation it cannot be cast on and off instantly and at will. This lack of unfettered freedom in all the

in Cultivating political and public identity

from the Commission. Additional Commission Contribution to the Intergovernmental Conference. Regulations Governing Political Parties. 28 See ‘Contribution of the Court of Justice and of the Court of First Instance to the IGC’. The document can be found at the EU/ECJ Internet site ‘europa’. 29 Opinion of the ESC, ‘IGC 2000 and the role of the ESC’, Brussels, 1 March 2000. 30 See ‘Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on the IGC’, 17 February 2000, Committee on Institutional Affairs/005, 32A. 31 See COM (2000) 34 Final, 26 January 2000. 32 Reported by W. Wallace

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Towards a union or not?

extension of its budgetary powers and the ‘co-decision procedure’ obtained in the Amsterdam Treaty in particular. All three institutions have had to become increasingly transparent in the process, helped by technological advances such as the internet. New members such as Sweden and Finland with their traditions of openness in public affairs are also, in his view, contributing to this trend. Indeed, he says, with more and more EU members, the Council of Ministers is increasingly becoming a kind of assembly, or senate, with meetings involving over 75 people more akin to a

in Destination Europe
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Crisis, reform and recovery

practice, however, such operations can be self-defeating, as they may raise domestic interest rates and stimulate even greater capital inflows. In Thailand (and other crisis-hit Asian countries), the monetary authorities made some attempt to sterilize capital inflows as a means of limiting the growth of domestic credit. In particular, the monetary measures included the conventional form of sterilized intervention (designed to offset the effect of reserve inflows on the monetary base by open market sales of domestic securities), increases in reserve requirements (designed to

in The Asian financial crisis
A twenty-first century trial?

determination of the case by making any submissions properly open to the accused by way of preliminary or pre-trial motion or by interventions during the trial. These could include objecting to evidence, cross-examining witnesses, and drawing the Chamber’s attention to any exculpatory or mitigating evidence, but not calling witnesses or cross-examining on instructions. The Chamber later added 181 Dominic McGoldrick that the amici should also point out any defences, for example, self-defence, which might properly be open to Milosevic and, significantly, make submissions as to

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
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Protection • Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality • Subcommittee on Environment and Hazardous Materials • Subcommittee on Health • Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations • Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet This further division of labour allows these small panels of legislators and their staff to devote their time and resources in order to gain enough knowledge to write effective legislation. As will be discussed later, the position of subcommittees within Congress has also become a matter of Congressional politics as well as practicality

in The United States Congress

, constitutional changes increased Nigerian self-governance, and in 1960 the country obtained independence, albeit an unstable one.1 Political tensions and ethnic and religious differences led to the civil war that began in 1967 when the southeastern area attempted to secede to form the Republic of Biafra. During the Nigerian civil war, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for a shift in the understanding of nursing and medical practices as missionaries worked to care for survivors of violence. After the war, a dominant role for Nigerians began in Catholic healthcare missions

in Colonial caring

African sample but between 5 and 8 per cent in his Middlesex sample. 12 He speculated that this may be due to better rates of infant survival in Britain, but acknowledged that the findings were as yet inconclusive. 13 Lotter’s findings did not explore cultural difference in any detail, nor did they encompass the post-colonial reflections on self-identity, raised by

in The metamorphosis of autism
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against measles, with some even resorting to compulsion. 2 Both in academic and popular media, anti-vaccinationism has been blamed for these trends. In the global North, communities of activists, buoyed by the internet and social media, have caused headaches even in long-established public health systems. 3 Attacks on health workers in the twenty-first-century Global Polio Eradication Initiative showed that resistance to vaccines was still very much a live issue in low-income countries, too. 4 Even where the scientific case has been successfully made that vaccines

in Vaccinating Britain