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became a global phenomenon. As Sheila Jasanoff notes, today ‘most Western governments, and increasingly developing states, have supplemented funding for the life sciences and technologies with public support for ethical analysis’.16 Bioethicists now play a significant role in determining policies and guiding public debates across Europe, in Australia, Canada, Latin America, Israel, Pakistan, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, among other locations.17 The international growth and influence of bioethics has led 4 The making of British bioethics some to identify it as

in The making of British bioethics

Merit by the Japanese Red Cross.52 Keiko Sugiyama has commented on how La Motte exposed the hypocrisy of western men and women who, ‘under the banner of civilization and Christianity, were taking advantage of the natives and victimizing them’.53 La Motte does, nevertheless, still portray ‘native’ people as stereotypically uncivilised, just as she portrays the suffering French poilu as stereotypically weak and self-indulgent, and the American immigrant tuberculosis patient as ignorant and wilful. Her attack 84 The hell at the heart of paradise on western imperialism

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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Vaccine policy and production in Japan

://idsc.nih.go.jp/vaccine/dschedule/lmm11EN.pdf#search=%27Japanese+vaccine+schedule+2011%27 . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) www.cdc.gov/Mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6005a6.htm . Although the number of routine vaccines has proliferated in western nations, particularly since the 1980s, in Japan, a country whose population is one of the world's healthiest and the leader in life expectancy, the number has actually decreased since the end of

in The politics of vaccination
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behaviours rather than old-fashioned Victorian-style ‘social control’ being exerted. 110 Indeed, we might see something of this in the new style of community activity, especially that geared towards fundraising, that Nick Hayes and Barry Doyle have identified as part of an evolving hospital-orientated middle-class civic culture in the interwar years. 111 While the distinction between the two is at best hazy, the almoner

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48

about how urgent each case was, and from here patients were sent either straight to the operating theatre; to X-ray; to a ward to await treatment; or, for the worst cases, to the moribund ward where only palliative care was given. Borden spend much of her time in the reception hut during the great ‘rushes’ of casualties that followed unsuccessful assaults on the Western Front. The model of this first reception hut was copied at L’Hôpital d’Evacuation on the Somme Front in 1916, about which Borden wrote one of her most vivid short essays, ‘Blind’.39 Borden’s belief

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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Why do so many parents vaccinate their children? On a superficial level, this seems like an odd question. In recent years, public health professionals around the world have been much more concerned with parents who do not. A high-profile outbreak of measles in 2015 in Disneyland, California created headlines around the globe, leading the state government to reassess its policy for granting vaccination exemptions. 1 Meanwhile, rising morbidity in Western Europe in 2017 caused many nation-states to increase efforts to vaccinate children

in Vaccinating Britain

economically well-suited to weather national trends can be seen from unemployment and poor law statistics up until the 1970s. 14 The city's successful trading culture led to a sizeable and culturally active middle-class elite. 15 When Charles Madge, co-founder of the Mass Observation movement, surveyed patterns of household saving in Bristol in 1940, he found 18.2 per cent to have weekly incomes above £7. 16 This was notably more than the 12 per cent

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

everywhere in East Pakistan in the spring of 1958. 3 Cholera and smallpox were endemic to both East and West Bengal. 4 The diseases were historically embedded in regional culture, and Hindu and Muslim devotees were known to worship disease deities in village shrines and temples. 5 Indeed, the bacteria that cause cholera ( Vibrio cholerae ) are thought to have evolved in the waters at the face of the Ganges

in The politics of vaccination
Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media

of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Blair's political style has been linked to a new type of personalised political leadership which emerged at the end of the twentieth century in western democracies. This style of politics has seen an increase in the importance of the political leader over the collective of the party. The democratic decision-making process has been reduced to one individual who influences public opinion

in The politics of vaccination

analysis of American nurses’ experiences in Japanese Prisoner-­of-­War camps’, Nursing History Review 3 (1995): 105–27; Bernice Archer and Kent Fedorowich, ‘The women of Stanley: Internment in Hong Kong, 1942–45’, Women’s History Review 5, 3 (1996): 373–99; 190 Reasserting work, space and gender boundaries Penny Starns, Nurses at War: Women on the Frontline, 1939–45 (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000); Christina Twomey, ‘Australian nurse POWs: Gender, war and captivity’, Australian Historical Studies 36, 124 (2004), 255–74; Christina Twomey, ‘Double displacement: Western

in Negotiating nursing