Arthur B. Gunlicks

resources emerged among the Länder. These were made up to some extent by transfers among the Länder and federal grants. If the Weimar Republic became more like a decentralized unitary state than a federal state, the Third Reich of Adolf Hitler was a centralized state with no pretense of regional autonomy. In January 1934, a year after Hitler took power, a law was passed according to which the Länder ceased to exist as meaningful federal units, and the local administrative units that came into being were financed by grants from the central government. During the occupation

in The Länder and German federalism
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

political impasse in Moscow. Thus, the constitutional foundations, that were to determine the future direction of these republics for many years to come, were laid down during a time of great turmoil and uncertainty, and before the Russian Constitution was formally adopted. During this period of weak and divided central powers, the republics were able to carve out for themselves ever-greater amounts of national autonomy. Problems over the legitimacy of the federal Constitution weakened the authority of the federal government and the status of federal laws in the federal

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

cultural autonomy, territorial integrity, and symbols of statehood; on the other hand it insisted on the supremacy of the central state and government and strove for a state of affairs where national separateness and ethnic identity would ultimately wither away’.3 The USSR’s adoption of an ‘ethno-territorial’ form of federalism was originally designed as a temporary measure, adopted to entice the nonRussian nationalities to join the union. But as Gleason notes, such a principle entailed a recognition of the ‘national statehood’ of the constituent republics.4 Under Soviet

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Lennart J. Lundqvist

operational unit for that area (Slocombe 1998:34). 2579Ch2 12/8/03 11:47 AM ‘Nested enterprises’? Page 27 27 What then should we mean by ecosystem management (ESM)? It is evident that there has been an evolution in the views on what constitutes the proper aims and content. In terms of our double standard of sustainability and autonomy, the traditional view of ESM showed little concern for autonomy. Many of the early definitions contended that ESM should be run by expert managers who wilfully and skilfully use and integrate an established knowledge base to achieve

in Sweden and ecological governance
David Owen

if the link between individual autonomy and collective self-government need not imply that citizens have a duty to participate actively in the political life of the polity, it does imply that they must have the opportunity to do so. But this opportunity in turn depends on their capacity to participate. The citizenship status of minor children or cognitively disabled persons might then be in jeopardy

in Democratic inclusion
Ami Pedahzur

its activities, in accordance with Yishai’s assertion, be directed at the stability of society? And will those groups whose target is the State suffer from a lack of autonomy and remain ineffectual? Or, perhaps, in accordance with Ben-Eliezer’s argument, will all organisations be rendered ineffectual and suffer inclusively from a lack of autonomy? And, third, with regard to the internal distinctions characteristic of this ‘pro-democratic civil society’ and its relationship to its environment, are there indications that one is speaking of a substantive body capable

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
José Blanes Jiménez and Edgar Antonio Pabón

years 2003–07, a period of political changes tended to more strongly incorporate indigenous peoples in the new political constitution of the state. This culminated in the approval of the new Political Constitution in January 2009. This document established a system of autonomy for indigenous communities, which is understood by the government to be an alternative form of management of the territory, instead of the municipality. In December 2009 the municipality approved a referendum to constitute itself in an Aboriginal Indigenous Peasant Autonomy. Many issues were

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Peter J. Spiro

system that (mostly) slots individuals into one or two but not all of many different polities. It takes account of movement among states, liberal autonomy values, the continued dominance of territorially based governance and the possibility (up to a point) of non-territorial identity. Stakeholder citizenship promises a taste that's just right for the new world. The key, of course, is how the stake behind stakeholder

in Democratic inclusion
Raymond Hinnebusch

imperialist influence to establish a relatively autonomous regional system. Additionally, in the rise of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), south–south solidarity produced exceptional financial power that, while failing ultimately to raise the region from the economic periphery, arguably transformed the position of the swing oil producer, Saudi Arabia, from dependence into asymmetric interdependence. However, favourable conditions for regional autonomy have, particularly since the end of the oil boom and Cold War, been largely reversed. The West

in The international politics of the Middle East
Jane Humphries

economic development but itself subject to other powerful forces and in turn influencing Plague, patriarchy and ‘girl power’ 209 economic trends. Essential to this relative autonomy was the identification of the borderlands between the spheres of production and social reproduction as terrain in which working people pushed back against the pressures of the economic system and sought space to improve their standard of living and exercise control over their own lives. As a theoretical and position piece the paper has proved durable, providing insight into the co

in Making work more equal