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From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

. While disputes arose regarding the extent of the ESDP’s potential autonomy and its relationship to NATO, many of these issues were resolved over time, and by September 11 the EU seemed to be on course to fulfil its security policy ambitions. In Germany, meanwhile, although it appeared that Berlin had been getting to grips with the use of force, as seen in the resolution of the out-of-area debate by the mid-1990s and the subsequent deployment in Kosovo, the change in leadership from Kohl to Schröder in 1998 witnessed a more domestically focused German foreign policy, as

in Germany and the use of force
Elana Wilson Rowe

Council. We first look at how debates around the ‘science–​policy interface’ manifest themselves more generally. When is discussion of scientific knowledge (or the presence/​autonomy of scientists) given weight at the high-​political level? Turning to indigenous diplomacy, we analyse and categorise Permanent Participants’ diplomatic interventions in the Arctic Council (which is, of course, just one stage upon which the multifaceted politics of indigenous sovereignty is enacted). In the concluding section, I discuss a concept borrowed from science and technology studies

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

autonomy – the right to form independent associations including social movements, interest groups and political parties. 1 Representative democracies are closely associated with constitutional arrangements designed to legitimise the state and ensure that citizenship rights are protected. They still assume greater judgement, more political intelligence, among political

in Understanding political ideas and movements
M. Anne Brown

fails to adequately order society or steer the state. On the other hand, an accessible, autonomous legal system would threaten the autonomy of the state and the Party’s leading role. Consequently, reforms to date are incomplete and contradictory. This tension remains a significant feature of China’s political system. In effect, throughout the 1980s the legitimacy of the leadership and the Communist Party was based increasingly on successful economic management and people’s increased buying power, plus increased

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

and enjoy a large degree of autonomy. Government The president appoints the prime minister, and, on the prime minister’s advice, the other members of the cabinet (Council of Ministers). The cabinet has around fifteen full ministers and is responsible to Parliament. The bicameral Parliament has a lower chamber, the Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati), of 630 members and an upper chamber, the Senate (Senato), of 315

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Heikki Patomäki

the relationship between the United States and the United Nations’. 8 However, he also asked for relative autonomy, for instance in a meeting with Secretary of State Warren Christopher and the US Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright: ‘I know that I must have the US support to succeed. But,’ I said, ‘please allow me from time

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

conflict of March–June 1999 was the mounting Albanian–Serb tension and violence of the previous decade. The Albanians, who had enjoyed a measure of autonomy in Communist Yugoslavia; controlling such things as local administration and education, saw this swept away from the late 1980s. This happened in the face of resurgent Serb nationalism and, more particularly, the policies of President Milosevic who exploited it to strengthen

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Maja Zehfuss

identified by Western governments as ‘Kosovo’, a Serbian term, whereas Albanians refer to ‘Kosova’. Both mean ‘blackbird’. The problem is, whether the place in question rightfully belongs to Serbia as the birthplace of the Serb nation in the 1398 battle on the ‘Kosovo’ field, 14 or whether autonomy or even independence should be granted to ‘Kosova’ on the grounds that its population

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Virtuousness, virtuality and virtuosity in NATO’s representation of the Kosovo campaign
Andreas Behnke

Albanians’. Until 1989, there had been general peace in the area. However, ‘Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic altered the status of the region, removing its autonomy and bringing it under the direct control of Belgrade, the Serbian capital’. This action by Milosevic, NATO suggests, was at the core of the conflict between the Serbs and the Kosovar Albanians, as the latter ‘strenuously opposed the move

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Reflections in a distorting mirror
Christoph Zürcher

over the question of the status of these second-level units. Chechnya, Kosovo, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia were all ethnically defined territorial units within the Soviet or Yugoslav republics. All of them turned violent, when they started seeking greater autonomy or even independence. Thus, the legacy of the socialist ethno-federalism proved to be especially prone to conflict. When the empire broke down

in Mapping European security after Kosovo