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The German model of federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

process, return a number of important functions to the states. Since this was to include the financing of these activities, the support of many governors and interest groups was not very strong, and in the end little actual “sorting out” occurred. But the enthusiasm for federal involvement in so many activities was dampened during the Reagan era, and with the appointment of a majority of conservative Supreme Court judges during the Reagan and Bush Administrations from 1980 to 1992, the Supreme Court has become much less supportive of and even hostile in some cases to

in The Länder and German federalism
Lennart J. Lundqvist

provided general and specific guidelines for expected municipal expansion. Plans were made legally binding through ratification by Regional Administration Boards or, for larger and more important plans, by the national government (Lundqvist 1972, passim). The planning process did little to link local development to the scale and quality of natural resources. Increasingly frequent clashes among competitive demands for land and natural resources could not be resolved, and resource issues spanning many municipalities and whole regions were not properly addressed. This led

in Sweden and ecological governance
Paul G. Lewis

10 Central and eastern Europe paul g. lewis The passage of over ten years since the first fully competitive elections should have succeeded in putting the progress of democratization in post-communist Europe into clear perspective. By now we might expect to have a reasonably firm comprehension of how far democratization has proceeded, why – if its achievements are differentiated – it has gone further in some countries than others, and which events and processes have driven democratic change. The looking-glass of democratization studies should in this sense have

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

Irish co-operative movement represented one of the most important movements in this national process as it aimed to revitalise Irish character with its economic interventions. In this way the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (IAOS) exercised a crucial influence over the form taken by the Irish nation-state as its leaders, organisers and members came together to mould the ‘soft wax’ of Irish society. Historians have long argued over how the political conflict between nationalists and unionists formed the dominant feature of the ‘Irish

in Civilising rural Ireland
Pier Paolo Saviotti

productivity improvements in existing sectors. In this sense the complementarity between variety growth and productivity growth in existing sectors bears a considerable similarity to that between productivity growth in agriculture and investment in the new industries during the process of industrialisation (see Kuznets, 1965; Landes, 1998). Further support for the role of variety in economic development comes from Romer’s models (1987, 1990) that include a growth in the number of capital goods among the consequences of innovation. Variety and demand If the overall variety of

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
A cognitive perspective
Gilles Allaire

generally established for the development of competitive adjustments, as can be seen from the devastating effects that follow the emergence of critical suspicions about the identity of goods (e.g. ‘mad cow’, dioxin and other food scares). In the following sub-sections I examine two aspects of the classic economic approach to quality, the first referring to the technology of consumption and the second to quality labels (or signs) and information intermediaries. The conclusion of that discussion leads to a more global analysis of the process of the creation of quality

in Qualities of food
Open Access (free)
Mark Harvey, Andrew McMeekin and Alan Warde

recommendation. We can easily recognise that any item may be good with respect to one quality and bad with respect to another. Foods which are tasty but unhealthful provide a common example. It is also easy to be alert to the fact that a producer is likely to draw the public’s attention to the first property, while the nutritionist will highlight the second. Public health and economic competitiveness thus partly revolve around persuading people to prioritise one quality over another. That still, however, leaves open the difficulty of determining whether in respect of any one

in Qualities of food
The restructuring of work in Germany
Louise Amoore

deregulated bargaining structures of Anglo-Saxon state-societies are represented as more cost competitive than the dense regulatory constraints of German state-society. In a recent survey of the German economy, the OECD observe that ‘labour market institutions are adjusting, but not yet sufficiently to cope with the substantial labour market imbalances persisting in Germany’. On the basis of this representation of the problem, they advocate deregulatory interventions, arguing that ‘the authorities should support the process of introducing greater flexibility into the wage

in Globalisation contested
Phil Almond

, labour market construction and production organisation which combine to create a certain degree of internal coherence. As we will reflect on below, in Challenges to societal effects in global competition 53 contemporary societal institutionalist work there are different degrees of insistence on, or questioning of, the national closure of such logics, and implicitly on the long-controversial concept of ‘coherence’, and how far this implies functionality (Maurice and Sorge, 2000; Rubery, 1992). However, this embeddedness, or process of institutionalised social

in Making work more equal
Theories and evidence
Josep Banyuls and Albert Recto

differentiation. In some large companies, two-tier wage scales have come to be introduced for incumbent and newly recruited workers and, although this is illegal, in practice it has resulted in the gradual reduction of salaries for new employees. In some sectors, such as finance, the use of individual incentives is so widespread that it is customary to perform unpaid overtime to meet performance targets for the salary bonus. As for professional markets, traditional recruitment policies have been replaced by more competitive processes in which some applicants end up being

in Making work more equal