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Janet Wolff

Williams, historian of Manchester Jewry, records, this included Dutch and German Jewish merchants, who had come to England in connection with the textile industry. ‘By the Census of 1841, at least seventy-six Jewish persons were engaged in the Manchester cotton trade – forty-six as merchants, or perhaps commission agents, and twenty as commercial clerks.’ The area in those years, according to one source, was ‘a pleasant and genteel place in which to live’. It had been largely rural, local occupations being primarily smallholdings and cottage industries associated with

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‘What kind of people are you?’

Labour, the people and the ‘new political history’

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Lawrence Black

than innate. Such criticisms were not the only or dominant attitudes within Labour, but a significant undercurrent across time and all quarters of the party. Macintyre (1977: 488) notes such sentiments in the 1920s were less prevalent amongst Labour’s exLiberal, Trade Union and left-wing cohorts. Nor were non-conformist impulses absent from working-class culture. Rather this chapter, acknowledging that the Left could be frustrated by popular opinion and apathy, emphasises its frustration with what it alleged to be the people’s complacencies and ambitions (or lack of

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Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

. But shopkeepers were less easily tempted. Ronald Brierley, chairman of the Lettings Policy Committee, explained that the City Council had encouraged competitors to open shops in Hulme and these had drawn away trade, partly because of the difficulty of manoeuvring prams and shopping trolleys through the approaches to the Precinct Centre. Traders had therefore become dependent on student customers, most of whom were present for only two-thirds of the year, and shopkeepers would not take the plunge unless they could count on an especially high turnover during the

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Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

trade of diamonds, has been dubbed ‘toothless’ and is said to continue to exist ‘in name only’ (Elving 2012: 10–11; Harvey 2009: para. 4). Instead of the sanctions and embargoes against Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi that the final report of the UN Panel on Illegal Exploitation suggested imposing, the World Bank and the IMF granted Rwanda and Uganda debt-reduction benefits due to their good economic performances (UN Panel of Experts 2001: 38–9). The resource wars thesis has informed UN policy towards statebuilding, reflecting not only the vision of the DRC as failed but

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Steven Fielding

outnumber the proletariat, who, in turn, would be transformed, such that the ‘typical worker of the future’ would be a ‘skilled man in a white overall, watching dials in a bright new modern factory [rather] than a badly paid cotton operative working in a dark and obsolete 19th-century mill’. Owing to the ‘particularly notable increase in comforts, pleasures and conveniences’ in the home, women’s lives were, Gaitskell stated, now ‘a good deal easier’. Yet, owning washing machines, refrigerators and the like made them even less likely to vote Labour than in the past. It was

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Resurfacing

Continuous theatre for a creative city

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David Calder

-product of the shipbuilding industry. Nantes’ first shipyard was installed on the Quai de la Fosse in 1668 with financial backing from Colbert, minister of finance to Louis XIV. From that date through the height of French imperialism in the nineteenth century, a spatial division of labour emerged in which Paris merchants distributed goods throughout the nation and Nantes merchants distributed goods throughout the empire. Shipbuilding perpetuated and was perpetuated by Nantes’ role as the slave-trading capital of France and the pre-­eminent port for trade with the colonies

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Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

certain times on television. For the last five to seven years everyone has been under pressure to make PG-​13 rather than R. World Trade Center was a PG-​13, which was a very violent movie about a grim subject. It was however a family-​oriented movie with good perceived values. The violence was modified so that the viewer does not see overly crushed limbs. There were heroic true stories, and so the film got a PG-​13 despite the violence. This move to PG-​13 is driven by commercial pressures. Studios will not make the movie if it has certain threatening elements in it

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James E. Connolly

steel.38 Yet the backbone of Nordiste industry was textile manufacturing. Nearly 40 per cent of French cotton, 85–​90 per cent of linen, 40 per cent v9v 10 The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914–18 of wool and 30 per cent of cloth was produced here. Roubaix was the world leader in cloth production.39 The textile industry employed about 225,000 people, many of whom were women working in semi-​skilled jobs. Often factories were run by paternalistic men hailing from large industrial families comprising a new form of notability, with leading factory  ​owners

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Moral borderlands

Criminality during the occupation

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James E. Connolly

half of the occupation.57 Thefts committed to the detriment of the Germans also highlight the blurring of moral boundaries. For example, on 19–​20 June 1916, three men aged seventeen, nineteen and twenty were arrested ‘for the theft of around 50 skeins of cotton to the detriment of the German Army, for whom they have been working for some time’.58 It is not clear if they worked for the Germans voluntarily. Even if they had been forced, this would still have elicited disdain from some locals; yet they also stole from the Germans. Was this a form of resistance, a

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John Marriott

curious or interesting to a contemplative spectator…. Almost all our modern publications on the subject of India, are entirely occupied with its political and military history, – details and suggestions upon its trade and commercial resources, – and occasionally with discussions upon the more recondite parts of its literary or mythological antiquities. 28