related to more general developments
in Russian society and politics.
What is to be implemented?
The environmental problems of Northwestern Russia are directly or
indirectly addressed by a number of international treaties, agreements,
regimes and other co-operative arrangements. Some of these are
International environmental agreements in Russia
global instruments that happen to have implications for the particular
problems of the region; others are specifically aimed at solving them.
In some cases, specific arrangements are linked to more general instruments at the
restructuring and concentration have weakened the role of industrial trademarks,
while more global concerns about consumption that involve the entire chain (e.g.
green labels) seem to be more easily handled by retailer networks.
The normative framework integrates qualitative attributes only if they are
reduced to an homogeneous system of functions of objective characteristics (see
the first section).
See Montgomery (1995).
Quoted by Murdoch and Miele (2003: n.p.); the authors introduce a note
of caution to Urry’s argument: ‘while, on the one hand, networks might appear
1995; Birochi 1999). Some
indicate that these changes were due to wider changes in the international
arena. With the end of the Cold War, the EU was given the chance to
develop a global vision and a space in which to do it (Aldecoa Luzarraga
1995; Birochi 1999). The internal changes in the EU, especially its increased
integration, have also been mentioned in this regard (Aldecoa Luzarraga
1995). For Laporte Galli (1995), the reasons are various: firstly, the Commission had an ambition to develop an external policy with one voice,
independent from the individual
IMF package for Thailand. Similarly,
Why China survived the crisis
Singapore’s minister for information, the indefatigable George Yeo, while
accusing Japan of abdicating its global responsibilities, noted that “the determination of the Chinese government not to devalue the renminbi in order
not to destabilize Asia further will long be remembered” (Kelley 1998, 28).
Another observer noted that the RMB was a “pillar of stability” in the
region (Dassu 1998).
How did China respond to the Asian ﬁnancial crisis? Why did China
come through such a severe region
Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes and Davies Banda
2 Sport, development and the political-economic
context of Zambia
This chapter examines how the wider
political and economic context in Zambia has been influential in shaping the
historical governance of sport and the expansion of the SfD
‘movement’ in the country. As the previous chapter has shown,
within the academic literature most attention has been paid to the global
expansion of SfD; a further, smaller body of
in commercial paper. It became the official dealer for US Treasuries. 1
The last member of the Lehman family to have actively led the company (which he did from 1925), Robert Lehman, died in 1969, having steered it through an important period of growth in a period in which new developments had dramatically changed the world. Lehman began to expand globally, opening offices in Europe and Asia, eventually merging with a leading investment bank, Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Following the death of Robert Lehman, the firm struggled under the leadership of
changed the cost–benefit analysis of social
democratic macroeconomic strategies. Social democrats have become
increasingly convinced of the merits of ‘stability’, or low and stable rates
of inflation and fiscal discipline, as a means of securing credibility. Many
adopt ‘risk-averse, cautious macroeconomic policies seeking to secondguess the reactions of global financial markets and to secure their approval’
(Held et al. 1999: 230).
Yet, while it is undoubtedly the case that the power balance has shifted
in favour of private capital holders, such a disparate and diverse
distinctive process of creation of a ‘discourse of civilisations’ (Duara, 2001). A significant confrontation
with existing Western concepts of ‘civilisations’ was not only an encounter with
a civilisational other; it was also the culmination of a longer history of engagement, especially in East Asia. Aspects of Japan’s historical experience informed
the wide-ranging confrontation with the global order and with Western empires
in particular. Engagement with the West stimulated Japanese development of its
own early discourse of civilisations. The remainder of the chapter
since the (formal) retreat of Western empires.
As Sadeq al-Azm has noted, the Arabs and Muslims, viewing themselves as a historically great nation and bearers of God’s true religion, find it hard to accept their domination by the West ( Arab Studies Quarterly , 19:3, 1997, 124). As such, external intervention and its often damaging consequences has stimulated an on-going reaction manifested in nationalist and Islamic movements, in the rise of revisionist states, and in the attempts of regional states to assert autonomy and to restructure
delivery networks, global transit providers, or IXPs. This may have an
impact with regard to struggles over a restructuring of the network by
abolishing network neutrality and introducing more steerable
To sum up, the position and action capabilities of the
large national providers would increase in comparison to market
competitors, but also in relation to other