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related to more general developments in Russian society and politics. What is to be implemented? The environmental problems of Northwestern Russia are directly or indirectly addressed by a number of international treaties, agreements, regimes and other co-operative arrangements. Some of these are 6 International environmental agreements in Russia global instruments that happen to have implications for the particular problems of the region; others are specifically aimed at solving them. In some cases, specific arrangements are linked to more general instruments at the

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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A cognitive perspective

restructuring and concentration have weakened the role of industrial trademarks, while more global concerns about consumption that involve the entire chain (e.g. green labels) seem to be more easily handled by retailer networks. The normative framework integrates qualitative attributes only if they are reduced to an homogeneous system of functions of objective characteristics (see the first section). See Montgomery (1995). Quoted by Murdoch and Miele (2003: n.p.); the authors introduce a note of caution to Urry’s argument: ‘while, on the one hand, networks might appear to be

in Qualities of food

1995; Birochi 1999). Some indicate that these changes were due to wider changes in the international arena. With the end of the Cold War, the EU was given the chance to develop a global vision and a space in which to do it (Aldecoa Luzarraga 1995; Birochi 1999). The internal changes in the EU, especially its increased integration, have also been mentioned in this regard (Aldecoa Luzarraga 1995). For Laporte Galli (1995), the reasons are various: firstly, the Commission had an ambition to develop an external policy with one voice, independent from the individual

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Why China survived the financial crisis

IMF package for Thailand. Similarly, 252 Why China survived the crisis Singapore’s minister for information, the indefatigable George Yeo, while accusing Japan of abdicating its global responsibilities, noted that “the determination of the Chinese government not to devalue the renminbi in order not to destabilize Asia further will long be remembered” (Kelley 1998, 28). Another observer noted that the RMB was a “pillar of stability” in the region (Dassu 1998). How did China respond to the Asian financial crisis? Why did China come through such a severe region

in The Asian financial crisis

2 Sport, development and the political-economic context of Zambia This chapter examines how the wider political and economic context in Zambia has been influential in shaping the historical governance of sport and the expansion of the SfD ‘movement’ in the country. As the previous chapter has shown, within the academic literature most attention has been paid to the global expansion of SfD; a further, smaller body of

in Localizing global sport for development

in commercial paper. It became the official dealer for US Treasuries. 1 The last member of the Lehman family to have actively led the company (which he did from 1925), Robert Lehman, died in 1969, having steered it through an important period of growth in a period in which new developments had dramatically changed the world. Lehman began to expand globally, opening offices in Europe and Asia, eventually merging with a leading investment bank, Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Following the death of Robert Lehman, the firm struggled under the leadership of

in Lehman Brothers
Credibility, dirigisme and globalisation

changed the cost–benefit analysis of social democratic macroeconomic strategies. Social democrats have become increasingly convinced of the merits of ‘stability’, or low and stable rates of inflation and fiscal discipline, as a means of securing credibility. Many adopt ‘risk-averse, cautious macroeconomic policies seeking to secondguess the reactions of global financial markets and to secure their approval’ (Held et al. 1999: 230). Yet, while it is undoubtedly the case that the power balance has shifted in favour of private capital holders, such a disparate and diverse

in In search of social democracy

distinctive process of creation of a ‘discourse of civilisations’ (Duara, 2001). A significant confrontation with existing Western concepts of ‘civilisations’ was not only an encounter with a civilisational other; it was also the culmination of a longer history of engagement, especially in East Asia. Aspects of Japan’s historical experience informed the wide-​ranging confrontation with the global order and with Western empires in particular. Engagement with the West stimulated Japanese development of its own early discourse of civilisations. The remainder of the chapter

in Debating civilisations
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The international system and the Middle East

since the (formal) retreat of Western empires. As Sadeq al-Azm has noted, the Arabs and Muslims, viewing themselves as a historically great nation and bearers of God’s true religion, find it hard to accept their domination by the West ( Arab Studies Quarterly , 19:3, 1997, 124). As such, external intervention and its often damaging consequences has stimulated an on-going reaction manifested in nationalist and Islamic movements, in the rise of revisionist states, and in the attempts of regional states to assert autonomy and to restructure

in The international politics of the Middle East
Analysing the example of data territorialisation

-intensive content delivery networks, global transit providers, or IXPs. This may have an impact with regard to struggles over a restructuring of the network by abolishing network neutrality and introducing more steerable networks. To sum up, the position and action capabilities of the large national providers would increase in comparison to market competitors, but also in relation to other

in Security/ Mobility