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Common right, parish relief and endowed charity in a forest economy, c. 1600–1800

means to relieve themselves, there being little work to set them on, but by flocks go roving up and down the forest, parks and inclosed grounds near unto them to the great hindrance of all who have cattle and woods’.46 For the poor migrant to the forest, therefore, custom came to be regarded not as cohesive but rather as a restrictive ideology, one of the structural constraints within, and around, which survival tactics were perforce developed. What is especially striking about this complex economic equilibrium is the sheer endurance of the forest itself. Despite a

in The poor in England 1700–1850
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human thought was invariably constrained by the cultural categories available in a particular language.4 In its structuralist form, descending from Saussure via Jakobson, Lévi-Strauss and literary structuralism, linguistics examines the relations not only of words, but also of grammatical structures. Noam Chomsky has famously posited an innate human ability to create a ‘generative grammar’ (cohering to a ‘universal grammar’) of which any given individual will be unaware but which enables his or her native-language fluency. A widely read recent adaptation of Chomsky

in The spoken word

to redress [the lack of disabled people’s voices], and in doing so give voice to the experience of both disabled men and disabled women’.6 Other work has seen an intensified effort to address the lack of women’s perspectives in disability studies and to integrate feminist theory into an intersectional disability studies.7 Likewise, the interplay between disability and masculinity is an important and emerging question. Like Morris, Tom Shakespeare argues that the structural focus of the social model has obscured personal experiences 142 DIS ABILITY IN INDU S

in Disability in industrial Britain
The economy of makeshifts in the early modern north

be understood against the backdrop of slim profit margins in agriculture for most farmers, seasonal working patterns which depressed annualised income, frequent payment of wages in forms other than cash, and demographic uncertainty.9 Such influences on the economic lives of some 70 per cent of the population were to remain in force after 1750 and were augmented by trade-cycle fluctuations, structural unemployment, the vagaries of an increasingly urbanised labour market and increasing levels of sickness amongst the population even as life-expectancy improved. By the

in The poor in England 1700–1850

a number of its international competitors. Nothing encapsulated this transformation more than the coal industry, which itself had endured the loss of markets, severe dislocation and profound difficulties. War, international economic turbulence and structural problems in the industry had caused a period of sharp decline in the decades after the First World War and, while nationalisation in 1946 was greeted by miners and their supporters as a new beginning, the coal industry was nevertheless a much smaller industry by that time, as compared to its Edwardian heyday

in Disability in industrial Britain
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch’s Venus im Pelz (1870)

the area of psychiatry. While attesting that literary writers possessed a deep understanding of the human psyche, he viewed their works as overtly idealising – a comment on the ∙ 23 ∙ A HISTORY OF THE CASE STUDY strong strand of post-Darwinian pantheism in German literature that celebrated the unity of nature and man.26 Introducing the first edition of Psychopathia Sexualis he argued: For now poets are the better psychologists, rather than experts in psy­chol­ ogy and philosophy. But they are emotionalists rather than rationalists and definitely biased in the

in A history of the case study
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Mirrors of French ideals?

turn perhaps explains why non-episcopal clergy may have felt less qualified to produce this type of very specialised text, and so concentrated on the generally more straightforward and traditional hagiography. Manuals of instruction tended to follow a distinct structural pattern, although they varied in length from reasonably compact volumes to extended chap 6 22/3/04 12:54 pm Page 173 MANUALS AND HAGIOGRAPHY 173 treatises like those of Bishop Camus. After an introductory preface in which the author revealed his intention to provide a source of information and

in Fathers, pastors and kings