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Maureen Mulholland

civil litigation. This includes pleas of debt, trespass, slander and disputes over land heard in the manorial courts; claims of breach of faith, defamation and testamentary disputes in the Courts of the Church; and litigation between subjects in the common law courts at Westminster and on 5 Maureen Mulholland circuit. The term ‘civil litigation’ may be anachronistic, but these cases are all examples of disputes between individuals and are therefore arguably within the term. Rationality The first requirement of a fair trial analysed by Joseph Jaconelli is rationality

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John Narayan

from the norm, driven by the exigencies of short-term domestic or international politics. Capitalism was global, and the globe was capitalist. (Frieden 2006: 29) By the mid-nineteenth century, the onset of the First Great Globalization saw world trade grow at a rate of 4 per cent per year for the rest of the century (Rodrik 2011: 24–5). By 1913, every country in Western Europe, bar Spain and Portugal, had industrialized and such developments also took place in countries such as Argentina and Japan. Moreover, a global economic regime emerged across what we today call

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Neil McNaughton

inoculations against serious disease, for regular check-ups on older patients and on disease early screening systems. But the effects of these schemes would not be felt for some years to come. The crisis was a short-term problem for the government. The fundamental problem for the NHS, as with many public services, was that it was never likely to be as efficient as private enterprise because it was not subject to the kind of competition which breeds such efficiency. Despite this, Conservative governments of the 1980s tended to judge the performance of public services against

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An architecture understood

Effective support structures for community– university partnerships

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Edward T. Jackson, Letlotlo M. Gariba and Evren Tok

on the basis of a call for proposals. The programme frequently funds collaborations between universities and other partners, including both private and non-profit sectors. In the wake of Europe’s continuing debt crisis, proposals to renew this programme will face stiff competition and scrutiny as the European Commission deals with cuts to its overall budget. These three examples of macro-level structures are instructive in many ways: the progressive framing and design of their programmes; their innovative practices of funding grantees, and the ways in which they

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Oonagh McDonald

high-risk investments. In other words, the objectives of the fund in which individuals invest has to be taken into account, but Woolley and Vayanos identify only two: fundamental investing, which uses estimates of cash flows to determine the worth of assets, whereas momentum investing disregards valuation and simply rides the trends usually over the short-to-medium term … Bizarrely and damagingly, the rise in momentum investing means that the bulk of equity investment is now conducted without regard to

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Mike Huggins

the scale, while the odds were in favour of the bookie in the long term because of the way odds were calculated, in the short term a combination of several bad debts and a run of punter successes could mean bankruptcy. Bookmakers were usually well organised, managing disputes, dealing with defaulters, or increasingly lobbying Parliament. The Rules Governing Betting were controlled by Tattersalls’ Committee, which had dominated the settlement of betting disputes nationally since its incorporation of the Newmarket Rooms Committee in 1899. Bigger bookmakers

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Raymond Hinnebusch

in the short term, this is bound to leave a more or less large segment of the public marginalised. Marginalised strata are the most likely to be attracted to sub- and supra-state identities and available for anti-system mobilisation by counter-elites: indeed, the victims of economic liberalisation appear to be among the main constituents of Islamic opposition movements. If the stronger states now in place have contained and localised the political threat of such movements, the gradual Islamisation of society at the grassroots may ultimately spell longer-term

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Arthur B. Gunlicks

formed a new government, and Peter Müller replaced the very short-term Rudolf Klimmt as prime minister. In spite of his criticism of the federal government during the campaign, the former SPD prime minister entered the federal cabinet as the Minister of Transportation35 but was later forced to resign due to a financial scandal involving his government while he was prime minister (figure 9.7). Schleswig-Holstein In the first elections after the war, the SPD received the most votes in this northernmost German state known for shipbuilding, fishing, and agriculture

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The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party

continuity, innovation and renewal

Paul Kennedy

those of its predecessor. Indeed, it can be argued that this continuity has been key to the success of the Spanish economy over recent years. The fact that the Finance Minister in Felipe González’s last government, Pedro Solbes, carries out the same duties under Rodríguez Zapatero is a further example of continuity in the area of economic policy. Overall, the economy performed well during Rodríguez Zapatero’s first term in office. GDP growth averaged 3.7 per cent, while the public debt was on course to be below 35 per cent of GDP in 2008, making it one of the lowest

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Distributing

Ezra Pound

David Herd

is, though, to make graphic the fact that given the aristocratic guise in which Pound was pleased to cast the artist, the term ‘enthusiasm’ was likely to have a limited or debased currency. All of which is frankly to acknowledge that to present Pound as an enthusiast is to argue against the grain. Except that Pound was an enthusiast. He was an enthusiast in the Modern, less freighted sense that Eliot describes; in the sense that he campaigned for, advocated and promoted his contemporaries. Joyce, recognizing his own early debt to Pound, described him as ‘a miracle