Richard Parrish

that autonomy. As a result, the Committee’s sporting recommendations merely sought to encourage the sports sector to adopt measures, rather than requesting the European Council or Commission to act. The report’s sports-related recommendations read: Since ancient times sport has been an important forum for communication among people’s. It is an important part of the lives of a large number of people within the Community. That is why it is all the more regrettable that the enjoyment of international competitive sport has been drastically marred recently by hooliganism

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

. Issues such as public order and sport, drugs and sport, safety in sport, disciplinary measures in sport, conduct in sport and wider issues relating to restraint of trade and anti-competitive behaviour in sport are today common features of the national legislative and judicial landscape. The internationalisation of sporting competition and finance combined with the development of the EU has internationalised juridification. Article 3 of the EU’s founding Treaty specified that the activities of the Community shall include ‘an internal market characterised by the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

lack of a Treaty base? What processes are at work that give rise to the development of distinct areas of law such as environmental law? Essentially, what is being examined is ‘task expansion’. Pollack offers a definition. ‘By task expansion I mean (a) the initial expansion of the Community agenda to include new policy areas and (b) the subsequent development and growth of substantive policies in each of these new policy areas’ (Pollack 1994: 96). This two-stage process has been evident in the development of sport as a EU competence. Initially, general legal

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Christopher T. Marsden

Gateway Protocols (BGP) need to be understood by government in order to formulate useful net neutrality policy even in the absence of formal regulation. How do these emergent areas interrelate with other parts of Internet governance? How does such governance interrelate with regulation, for instance where new actors and institutions are forming new coalitions of interest and epistemic communities? Further

in Network neutrality
Richard Parrish

-cultural and integrationist qualities of sport a higher priority and for sport to be afforded a higher level of protection from EU law. The European Parliament emerged as an important venue through which such ideas were discussed. Both the 1994 ‘Larive report’ on the European Community and Sport and the 1997 ‘Pack report’ on the ‘Role of the European Union in the Field of Sport’ demonstrated a desire to balance the economic regulation of sport with the promotion of sports socio-cultural and integrationist qualities.10 Furthermore, the Parliament has been successful in

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
‘Case history’ on violence against women, and against women’s rights to health and to reproductive health
Sara De Vido

‘interpersonal violence’: violence between individuals, including ‘family and intimate partner violence and community violence,’ the former committed within the context of the family, ‘community’ referring to 22 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 22 24/03/2020 11:01 The anamnesis ‘acquaintance and stranger violence,’ violence in workplaces and other institutions.4 The WHO categorisation does not precisely match my vertical dimension, although we can regard the WHO notion of ‘collective violence,’ meaning social, political and economic violence, as also referring to violence

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Richard Parrish

interpretation of EU law. • ECJ–individual The principle of direct effect has enabled individual litigants to defend their rights under EU law before national courts. Individuals, including companies, therefore have a stake in the EU’s legal order and in this capacity are supported by lawyers. Whilst therefore the ECJ plays an important role in developing legal principles and substantive law, its role should be placed in context. The ECJ constrains and is constrained by multiple actors operating within the EU’s legal community. The development of new substantive areas of EU

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido

’ forms of violence. Like VAW, VAWH makes no reference to the gender or the nature of the perpetrator. It emerged from chapter 1 that the perpetrator is not necessarily a male actor. For example, it is common practice that FGM/C are performed by women belonging to the community of the girl who undergoes it. Obstetricians might be women. In my book, the state can also be a perpetrator, not just through its agents, but also through laws and policies in the field of health that cause, or create the conditions for, VAWH. In this paragraph, I will specifically reflect on the

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Reconceptualising states’ obligations in countering VAWH
Sara De Vido

establishment of shelters: they are a purpose, which the state can achieve progressively if it does not have the means to achieve it immediately.57 Ertürk was right to argue that not much effort is required to analyse ‘the more general obligation of preventing violence from occurring, including by supporting women’s empowerment and engaging in transformative change at the community and societal level,’58 but this does not necessarily correspond in toto to due diligence obligations; it might be a form of progressive realisation or, more likely, a combination of different

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Towards Specialised Services?
Christopher T. Marsden

. Legal scholars still suggest freedom to innovate can be squared with absolute design prohibitions, despite over a decade of multi-billion-dollar protocol development by the IAP community resulting in the ability to control traffic coming onto their networks, and wholesale rationing of end user traffic. Pioneering network engineer Crowcroft makes three net neutrality policy points: the Internet was never

in Network neutrality