a health team which went to test the vaccine in South Africa. 37 At the same time, the Jama’atu Nasril Islam (JNI), the umbrella organisation for Muslims in Nigeria, sent a team of their own experts to test the vaccine in Indian laboratories. On 23 December 2003, the Minister of Health, Professor Eyitayo Lambo, announced that the ‘Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) used in Nigeria for immunisation, ‘had been found to be safe and free of anti

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Seas, oceans and civilisations

, 1974:  19–​22; Matsuda, 2012:  49–​63; Russell-​Wood, 1998). The distinctly Catholic traders met Muslims, Jains, Hindus and Jews in settlements that acted as contact zones between merchant forces. In extending their imperial sphere from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, Portuguese sailors, traders, officials and soldiers were engaging in a globalising encounter. While en route around Africa they engaged in the habitual rituals of possession on the West African coastline, using methods learnt from Islamic forces in the long Reconquista of the Iberian 118 118

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)

. In the context of non-religious private schools, it was only the parents in Cheadle Hulme who considered them seriously. For these parents, the cost of private schooling was prohibitive, but they also had worries about putting their children in environments where they would have a too severe ‘fish-out-of-water’ experience and where they might face exclusion on the basis of being different and not rich or middle-class enough. Some of the Muslim parents in Whalley Range and Chorlton did have experience of sending their children to Islamic private schools, although

in All in the mix
Open Access (free)

, ethnicity, national background and region. These cleavages have not evaporated, but their political salience declined in the wake of the Islamic bombings. Americans per se were the objects of the Islamic terrorists. And because the United States has advanced politically so much since the civil and voting rights acts enacted in the 1960s in terms of black political participation and achievement, it is an integrated polity and people that experienced this onslaught. The massive sales of the American flag illustrate national unity and the sense of patriotic inclusion. The

in Democratization through the looking-glass

some cases, outright prejudice. Within a broader geopolitical context, the notion of the ‘threat of creationism’ is being tied to more pernicious clash-of-civilisation narratives. In the UK, for example, there are some recent cases whereby this this kind of implicit bias might be implemented within UK educational policy.2 This is particularly evident in relation to concepts of British values and the purported, yet to date empirically unfounded, threat of Islamic versions of creationism (Elsdon-Baker, 2015; Hameed, 2014). Data, methods and rejection of evolution All

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)

instruction. As a rule, officers in the Republics’ armies were Russians, not locals. Moreover, with their armies still largely in the embryonic stage, the Republics had to rely on the Russian armed forces to defend them, or to deter any significant threat to the region, such as that posed by radical Islamic militants. Russia was quite happy to assist. By sending military advisers, equipment and, when necessary, troops, to the Republics it was able to cement its military hold on the region. In fact, it was even suspected that Russia deliberately fomented unrest in the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

Islamic worlds. What are the components of these relationships, widely regarded as one of the main crossroads in the Middle East, often said to include the United States, sometimes Jordan, and described in superlatives kept for rare occasions? (For example: “Israel’s relations with its second friend [with Turkey; the first is Washington] overshadow even its relations with the United States!”) The Turkish–Israeli system is called the “Baghdad Pact No. Two,” the remarkable tie, the “Phantom Pact,” “The Three Musketeers,” brilliant move

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?

line against Islam shifted from the Spanish Reconquista to the Habsburg–Ottoman wars and even taken up by the USA after 9/11 (Todorova 2005a : 76). The antemurale myth predates both Atlantic slavery and the Spanish exclusion of indigenous people in the Americas from European humanity, Mills's and Mignolo's respective origin points for ‘race’; yoking nationhood with Christianity, it was, once Europeans started dividing the globe into ‘civilised’ and ‘uncivilised’ territories according to inhabitants' skin colour, implicitly racialised long before today's West

in Race and the Yugoslav region

relied heavily on outside help for solutions to the economic and political challenges attending statehood. The region remains potentially volatile owing to water-allocation conflicts, Islamic militancy and ethnic tensions. The prospects for regional peace and stability will depend, at least in the short term, on the sustained interest and intercession of the great powers, especially China, Russia and the United States. These three powers have made sustained and competitive diplomatic overtures to the Central Asian states. The United States, for instance, has made an

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Reflections in a distorting mirror

. August 1999: the Caucasus Mountains, border between Chechnya and Daghestan Two long columns of bearded fighters cross the border between Chechnya and Daghestan. They are on their way to carry the Islamic anti-Russian rebellion from Chechnya into Daghestan. They are lightly armed, mainly with AK-47s, some machine guns, a couple of mortars and a few RPG-7s – Russian shoulder

in Mapping European security after Kosovo