Effective support structures for community– university partnerships
Edward T. Jackson, Letlotlo M. Gariba and Evren Tok

, Japan, China, India and Singapore with government policies that encourage university–industry links (UILs) to promote innovation, technology and business growth (Yusuf and Nabeshima, 2007). Both higher education and innovation strategies in these jurisdictions are being used by the state to foster commercialized research, increased registering of patents and the growth of targeted technology clusters in regions. Likewise, universities in these countries are ‘trying harder to commercialize scientific discoveries and connect with the business world’ (ibid., p.  17

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
Susan Armstrong-Reid

.1  Elizabeth and Margaret Quakers assisted by the American Society of Friends reactivated the FAU to provide conscientious objectors of all faiths with an alternative to military service, as it had done in 1914. By 1945 the Convoy carved a unique humanitarian space as the first Western aid group to work ‘under’ the Chinese military and civil authorities in Free China (parts of west and south China not occupied by the Japanese). The unexpected end of the Sino-Japanese war marked a watershed for both China and the Convoy. Its ambitious post-war developmental plans, centred in

in Colonial caring
Global and local forms of resistance to golf course development
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

initially sponsored by three organizations: “the Global Network for Anti-Golf Course Action (GNAGA) based in Japan, the Asian Tourism Network (ANTENNA) based in Thailand and the Asian-Pacific People and Environmental Network (AEN) based in Malaysia” (as summarized in Jarvie, 2006 : 247). The GAGM website contains a manifesto that includes an overview of social and environmental concerns related to golf along with a set of proposed changes that follow on from these concerns. As sociologist Grant Jarvie recounts, for

in The greening of golf
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

some role in public life, seclusion is replaced by limited visibility. In Japan, the wedding of the then Crown Prince Akihito in 1959 was followed by an open horse-drawn carriage drive through Tokyo, another break with a tradition which until then had conveyed members of the imperial family in closed palanquins. 30 The presentation was of a royal family who were not only visible to the public, but receiving the approval, support, and acclamation of the public. That is something an absolute ruler, and even more so a semi-divine one, not only would not need, but would

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

interest rates. In fact, firms assumed that they would be able to roll over their loans easily when they fell due – after all, this is what they had done for several years before the crisis. Foreign lenders also complied, often not undertaking adequate appraisal of their investments. Radelet (1999) aptly notes that Indonesia’s vulnerability was all the greater because its largest creditors were Japanese banks, which provided about 40 per cent of the total credit from foreign banks. The underlying weaknesses of Japanese banks made them more likely to try to pull their

in The Asian financial crisis
Jeremy C.A. Smith

more forceful diversification of worldly articulations than Robertson allows for. Globality as consciousness looks more like a shifting terrain of different projects of globalisation that continue to imbue places with special meaning. Europe, the United States and Japan are three large projects with which to begin (Inglis, 2010). Robertson is not unaware of this, as evidenced in his elaboration of Japanese globality (Robertson, 58 58 Debating civilisations 1992: 85–​96). But the world appears, in the final instance, a received singular order for him, not one made

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

reformist change was under way also in Central and Eastern Europe. The ‘1992 project’ coincided with a major new effort further to liberalise world trade through the so-called Uruguay Round. A sense of new purpose in the West combined with despair in the East to produce the events leading up to the fall of the Wall of Berlin in November 1989, and to the collapse of the Soviet hold over Central and Eastern Europe. EEC enlargement The fears of the West – essentially North America, Western Europe and Japan – of an economic collapse in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis did not

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
R. A. Melikan

they were accountable and assessing its expectations, maintaining sufficient levels of co-operation with individual states who might otherwise refuse to extradite suspects or support the court financially, and achieving an acceptable relationship with the government and people of the state in which the court had been placed. Lowe focuses on a particular trial, that of the Japanese leaders for planning and carrying out aggression in Asia and the Pacific region between 1928 and 1945. In addition to querying the general parameters of the trial in terms of its fairness

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

. Brazil thus sets itself apart from the other stories of loss of national capacity under conditions of globalisation; instead it built on the country's earlier capacity for adoption and innovation and underwent a regeneration that is uncommon elsewhere. Julia Yongue tells another unique story of vaccine production in Japan, in which a sense of Japanese uniqueness is traced to the pre-war history of uncoordinated decisions by non-state firms to

in The politics of vaccination
Elana Wilson Rowe

new batch of observer applications, including China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and the European Union, became a late-​night, high-​political affair prior to the end of the Swedish chairmanship ministerial meeting in Kiruna (2013). Some states, namely Norway and Denmark, publicly went out with their support for the impending applications early on, even flagging their support for some of their Arctic strategies (e.g. MFA, Norway, 2011: 78). Others, such as the USA, Canada and Russia were taciturn. Interviews conducted with decision-​makers in 2013 indicated that

in Arctic governance