in declaratory USforeignpolicy, in that human rights were now brought
to the fore of international diplomacy. Rhetorical US support for the
protection and promotion of human rights found its parallel in the
attitudes of other governments as well, albeit on a more selective
basis. A classical case is Moscow’s determined propaganda effort
in the context of Cambodia (see Chapter 8 ). It was
is someone without formal political affiliations who is not afraid to offer policy
assessments of Afghanistan, Iran, Israel and Latin America, as
well as broader assessments of deficiencies in USforeignpolicy
and the fallacies of empire. If there is something of the contrarian in this persona that confounds supporters as much as it riles
opponents, then these qualities seem to add to the appeal of his
auteur brand, rather than weaken it.
The emergence of a filmmaker-political pundit is part of the
story of Stone explored in this book. It is a development that is
about broader institutional accountability had still not
been answered. The scepticism that had underpinned Salvador’s
critique of USforeignpolicy was grandstanded both in Stone’s
use of President Eisenhower’s farewell address and referencing
of the military industrial complex, and in the pivotal scene involving District Attorney Jim Garrison (Kevin Costner) and X (Donald
Sutherland) in JFK. Banks and the armaments industry were the
beneficiaries, it is suggested, of Kennedy’s removal, and Stone
pushed the suggestion further in Nixon by characterising malign
and Dutch Sections, but not at the Colonial Office. British officials were aware that the US intended to use the Caribbean Commission to extend its influence in the region and shape both the economic and political future of the possessions of the European empires along lines that confirmed to the objectives of USforeignpolicy. On more than one occasion, US officials attempted to formally align the Caribbean Commission with the UN in some way, as a specialised agency or a regional council, in order that the territories of the region would abide by principles
contemporary theoretical departures concerning rights, as in the writings for example of John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin or John Donnelly. But it appears also to be a vein of political imagination at work in the USforeignpolicy community and to a lesser extent similar circles in other Western states. Arguably, it acts as a pervasive cosmology and set of trainings for constructing notions of the state and the person. This does not mean, however, that the Lockean social contract is always underpinning Western understandings of human rights issues, or that the specific operation
energy, anti-apartheid, anti-militarism, and anti-fascism. Many worked
on solidarity campaigns with Nicaragua and El Salvador and organized
attacks on the US Embassy to protest USforeignpolicy and the
presidency of Ronald Reagan. The women’s movement manifested in
the squatters’ subculture through a number of squats that banned
the presence of men, to the point that during alarms, they permitted men
to stand in front of the house but did not allow them to enter the squat
to defend it from eviction
Williamson has described, urbanisation and the emergence of a
new literary awareness in the 1980s would progressively undermine the hallmark patriarchal power structures of the indigenous
and colonial societies.54
Stone’s documentary reflected the momentous political changes
that the continent had experienced since the 1970s. While South of
the Border’s appraisal initially focused on Chávez, it adopted something of a road movie structure which then solicited opinions on
both Chávez and USforeignpolicy more generally, as well as the
influence of the International Monetary
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
increasing problems with USforeignpolicy in South-East
Asia. However, the economic successes of the Community in general, and those
of the Customs Union and the Common Market in particular, meant that there
was an impact that extended well beyond the Community’s internal borders.
Accordingly, efforts to find a way of integrating and co-operating on the political side of economic affairs did not go away, both internally (political union)
and externally (foreign affairs). Hence the setting up of EPC in 1970, following
the December 1969 Hague Summit.
From EPC to the CFSP
Reconceptualising states’ obligations in countering VAWH
Sara De Vido
difficult to cross in individual cases.
74 Report E.CN.4/Sub.2/1987/23. See the evolution in O. De Schutter, International
Human Rights Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) p. 280.
75 H. Shue, Basic Rights, Subsistence, Affluence, and USForeignPolicy (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1980) p. 52.
76 GC No. 22, para. 40.
77 GC No. 22, para. 42.
78 GC No. 22, para. 45.
79 Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on
Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, Maastricht, 2–6 June 1986, UN doc. E/