Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
, the massive legacies of colonialism in the social
and economic sphere continue to challenge the different sense of
community that is now being built in the new South Africa.
R. Bartlett, ‘Citizens Minus: Indians and
the Right to Vote’, Saskatchewan Law Review , 44
(1979–80), p. 189
happened before. European
powers largely dominated the world in the eras of colonialism and, later,
imperialism and competed fiercely with one another in what they saw as
a ‘zero-sum game’ in the world at large and within Europe itself. Enemy
images, and national histories, had been formed in centuries of warfare.
Wealth was so scarce that the thought of sharing it with a rival, or trying
to increase it through open trade, was virtually impossible.
Not that these struggles diminished the resourcefulness of European
powers or, seen from the outside, of Europe as a whole
India’, in The Invention of Tradition , ed. Eric
Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge, 1983 ), 165–210; Bernard Cohn, Colonialism and Its Forms
of Knowledge (Princeton, 1996); Nicholas Dirks, Castes of
Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India (Princeton,
2001). See also Colin Newbury, Patrons, Clients, and Empire:
Chieftaincy and Over-rule in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific
determined to work through for themselves an idea of
life after colonialism. If for the domestic British decolonisation was
something which occurred ‘elsewhere’ – overseas and
out of sight – then the Caribbean experience may provide a partial
exception: it happened, had those in the metropole only been able to
see, before their very eyes.
In recovering these traditions of intellectual thought we
of the British government (p. 44).
5 TNA, CO 852/1037/1.
6 TNA, CO 852/874/5.
7 TNA, CO 852/874/5.
8 Havinden and Meredith, Colonialism and Development , pp. 253–255.
9 TNA, CO 295/642/4.
10 National Archives of Trinidad and Tobago (NATT), Box 6, no. 4, “Report of the Economics Committee, 1949”.
11 K. Meighoo, Politics in a Half-Made Society: Trinidad and Tobago 1925–2001 (Kingston: Ian Randle
Education and development in modern Southeast Asian history
-education of its subjects away from a slavish
colonial mentality and to the inculcation of the Nippon sheisin, the élan of imperial
Japan. Despite the disintegration of Japan’s constructive colonialism into war
imperialism and repression, several aspects of this experience endured. The first
is that the numbers of Southeast Asians sent to Japan dramatically increased in
number. The evidence shows that many played a role in post-colonial education
and that their worldview was significantly shaped by their time overseas (Akashi
1978). Second, the methods of Japanese schools in
Islam was the final refuge of these values that were hounded and
profaned by an outrageous colonialism’.47 Nationalist discourse invariably presented women and the domestic habitus as the ultimate redoubt
of Algerian identity, and this construct meant that the Islamic code of
law which regulated the family would need to be cleansed of all French
or western accretions that had polluted the pure tradition. Benabdallah
wrote: ‘The strength of Algerian Islam resides in effect in the extent to
which its spirit is in harmony with that of Algerian civilisation. It contains
poor resulted from attempts to understand the anachronistic presence
in the modern metropolis of a population that defied modernity. 101 It was
historically coterminous with the emergence of a distinctly modern
colonialism characterized by a ‘coherently
“anthropological” mode of typifying natives’. 102 In this
endeavour race was originally an analytical category with which human
culture could be
Subcontinent, 1765–1856 ,
Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1978; Charles Batten, Pleasurable
Instruction. Form and Convention in Eighteenth-Century Travel
Writing , Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978;
Sara Mills, Discourses of Difference. An Analysis of
Women’s Travel Writing and Colonialism , London,
Routledge, 1991; Dennis Porter, Haunted Journeys. Desire and