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Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Wood

-liberal macro-economic policies (and, in the US, the distorted ‘war Keynesianism’ that followed it) in the 1980s led to rising social inequality, primarily due to a widening of the wage gap, rather than increasing unemployment. In other words, while mass political enfranchisement was (at least on the surface) secure, it seemed that the economic disenfranchisement of a significant component of society had returned. Similarly, in many of the emerging ‘Third World’ democracies, mass participation in the electoral process appeared to do little to correct massive increases in

in Democratization through the looking-glass
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

analysis of the impact of the EU’s institutional framework or evolving ‘acquis communautaire’ on member states’ choices concerning cooperation, for example in European foreign economic policy, Young (2000: 93–116) argued that ‘the EU’s evolving institutional framework structures the member governments’ choices about cooperation in new policy areas’. Oberthür dealt with similar aspects in the environmental sphere (1999: 641–59). He concluded that the EU ‘has had difficulties in leading on issues not firmly established on its policy agenda. On subjects for which European

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

, institutionalized this language, ordering that the term ‘bandit’ replace the word ‘partisan’ in all correspondence, in an effort to coordinate policy and encourage aggressiveness.16 This decree effectively criminalized resistance while simultaneously extending what was deemed to be DHR.indb 74 5/15/2014 12:51:09 PM The Nazi imagination of the East  75 part of the anti-partisan effort to action against common criminality such as black marketeering, petty theft, and smuggling, which were in fact caused by the occupation’s exploitative economic policies. The term ‘bandit’ was

in Destruction and human remains
Sabine Clarke

plans were under way to allow the role of Governor to be an elected seat. 28 Political reform and radical economic policies to improve the lives of Puerto Ricans were essential if the US was to refute claims that in reality it was just another colonial power with no moral authority to pressurise Britain, for example, to commit to greater progress towards giving its colonial subjects the right to self-determination. In response to the information on PRIDCO circulated in 1944 there were discussions at the Colonial Office on the question of

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Mick Moore

Development Snyder, Richard (2006). ‘Does lootable wealth breed disorder? A political economy framework’, Comparative Political Studies 39(8): 943–68 Stijns, Jean-Phillipe (2006). ‘Natural resource abundance and human capital accumulation’, World Development 34(6): 1060–83 Torvik, Ragnar (2009). ‘Why do some resource-abundant countries succeed while others do not?’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy 25(2): 241–56 Toye, John (1995). ‘The new institutional economics and its implications for development theory’, in John Harriss, Janet Hunger and Colin M. Lewis (eds), The New

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Fragmented structures in a complex system
Andreas Maurer

and political union in institutional as well as in substantive terms, i.e. economic policy co-ordination at the EC level and a coherent and effective CFSP; the continuation of Franco-German co-operation; and a strengthening of the military capacities of the Union through the integration of the WEU into the EU ambit.12 The basic perception of European integration remains unchanged, particularly with regard to the role of the EC institutions. The German political elite continues to aim at the phased creation of a legally independent, state-like political entity with

in Fifteen into one?
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

economic policy and forms the foundation of economic reforms imposed on developing and conflict-affected states by institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Beginning in the late 1970s, this ideological discourse was operationalised by the above institutions in what came to be known as the Washington Consensus. Based on neo-liberal principles, policies of fiscal discipline, liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation were prescribed to developing and developed nations alike (Krogstad, 2007). The failure of this consensus to substantively

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Shirin M. Rai

12 is that even successful and self-confident national machineries need to be aware of the changing political and economic climate in order to guard against the erosion of their work. Examining the Australian national machinery, she argues that the ‘structures for gender accountability within government, which Australia helped pioneer, have been threatened by discursive shifts within government’ in the context of shifts in economic policy towards market liberalization and 10 INTRODUCTION and the consequent attack upon the role of the state in addressing broad

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

ideas and principles shading into one another, rather than distinctive ‘boxes’ with sharp dividing lines between them on principles of social and economic policy. Political scientists also identify a vertical axis of degrees of ‘authoritarian’ or ‘democratic’ inclinations of ideological supporters. Another vertical axis might be identified as leaning towards the ‘status quo’, or ‘conservative’, view of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Germany, Sweden and Australia compared
Ashley Lavelle

being in the midst of a boom (see Lavelle 2008b). The first major signs of a change in policy direction were evident in 1974–75 towards the end of the government’s reign when it reacted to the economic crisis with a number of measures, including establishing an Expenditure Review Committee prejudiced against any further public spending increases (Wood 1975: 9). Such decisions constituted, according to journalist Paul Kelly (1976: 59), ‘the most dramatic reversal in economic policy in the shortest possible time’. Another press commentator remarked: ‘The Government of

in In search of social democracy