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Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

-interest. Social democrats have often believed individuals to possess a fundamental altruism that is suppressed by market capitalism, but which would flourish once appropriate social and economic reforms were in place (Titmuss, 1970: 209–24; cf. Baldwin, 1990). In the post-classic era by contrast, we have been exposed to new versions of those doctrines that stress individualistic self-interest in the form of a strange blend of market libertarianism and moral conservatism. Second, there have been constructivist conceptions which challenge the belief that there is any pre

in After the new social democracy
Iain Lindsey
Tess Kay
Ruth Jeanes
, and
Davies Banda

following two decades to reach US$6916 million by 1990 (Situmbeko and Zulu, 2004 ). That the majority of this borrowing was from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank placed Zambia in a ‘recipient’ relationship with these donor organizations. Like other similarly indebted countries, Zambia had little choice but to implement the neo-liberal economic reforms that comprised the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) instigated by the IMF and World

in Localizing global sport for development
Arthur B. Gunlicks

appeared to go beyond a kind of all-party government to “gridlock” between the two legislative bodies and the parties that controlled them. There was strong public criticism of the Bundesrat, especially in the electoral period between 1994 and 1998, because it appeared that some of the Kohl government’s badly needed economic reforms were being blocked as a result of opposition by the Social Democrats and Greens who together had won enough elections in the Länder to gain a majority of votes in the Bundesrat. But while the general public and many scholars complained about

in The Länder and German federalism
Ana María Carrillo

questions of how and why the erosion of this strategic field occurred. For three centuries (1521–1821) Mexico – then, New Spain – was part of the Spanish Empire. In New Spain, the arrival of modern science late in the colonial period was mediated both by the existence of a self-taught community of enlightened individuals interested in progressing towards applied science, and the imperialist economic reform of the Spanish state in the eighteenth

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Affective experiences of female same-sex intimacies in contemporary China
Yiran Wang

under the policy of ‘economic reform and opening up’ (gaige kaifang), sexuality, gender and feminism re-emerged from academic and popular discourses ( Zhong, 2007 ). Male same-sex behaviours were decriminalised in 1997, and homosexuality was officially de-pathologised in 2001 ( Kang, 2012 ). After the twenty-first century started, owing to the development of the

in Affective intimacies
Open Access (free)
Lebanon’s strategic value in the Saudi–Iranian foreign policy chessboard
Hussein Kalout

electoral regulations as well as in the spectrum of structural economic reforms. The pro-Iranian coalition has made a trade-off deal by agreeing with an electoral law that preserves the pro-Saudi bloc’s preferred electoral landscape in exchange for that bloc’s not raising the question of demilitarising Hezbollah. 20 This compromise, in addition to ensuring internal peace, also aligns with Iran’s preference for regional force-projection capability over internal power dynamics. This dynamic could also shed light on the

in Saudi Arabia and Iran
Economy, football and Istria
Alex J. Bellamy

political pluralisation. Furthermore, ‘transition will encompass all spheres of the human lives and human relations, including the most subtle areas in the realm of the ideology, religious and other segments of the MUP_Bellamy_06_Ch5 105 9/3/03, 9:30 T   C   106 social conscience’.8 Similarly, the Ministry of Development and Reconstruction argued that economic reform would lead to the ‘revitalisation of the Croatian cultural and humanistic values, especially humane and educational values’.9 The transition to a market economy was

in The formation of Croatian national identity
David Hume’s History of England
Ben Dew

English monarchs and contemporary European ones, sought to enlarge his revenue.55 The newly acquired ‘spirit and judgement’ of the House of Commons, however, led it to protect what it considered its privileges, and attempt a series of economic reforms.56 Constitutional precedent, meanwhile, provided only limited help in adjudicating between conflicting claims. On occasions, the problem here was a lack of clarity. Describing James’s attempts to increase his income through raising customs and 180 COMMERCE, FINANCE AND STATECRAFT levying new impositions on goods, Hume

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

. The killings and the devastation have meant a savage and threatening conclusion to Indonesian rule. Militias remain potentially dangerous across the border in West Timor. While now embarked on its own process of political and economic reform, Indonesia continues in a state of crisis. It may now be Indonesia that is the fragile and unpredictable neighbour – and it will remain in the interests and the convictions of some there, not least the militia leaders who have fled to Jakarta, to act to undermine the newly emerging state. Within Indonesia, responses to East

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Andrew Monaghan

over recent years’, he continued. 19 There have been other sizeable post-Soviet protest demonstrations, including against shock therapy in 1992–1993 and the collapse of industry in the late 1990s. In 1997, more than 250,000 demonstrators took part in marches in Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Arsenev and other cities in the Russian Far East to protest wage arrears, and an end to economic reforms that they

in The new politics of Russia