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The parliamentary arena
Ami Pedahzur

imposed on parties – structural restraints were also used. The electoral system designed at the end of Second World War clearly indicates a preference for the principle of stability over that of representation. The likelihood of small parties being able to penetrate the German Parliament is minimal, due to the required 5 per cent minimum threshold vote of all the valid ballots cast, or, alternatively, a mandatory victory in at least three of the electorate’s regions. A retrospective glance demonstrates that the combination of these stringent structural and

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Cameron Ross

Constitutional asymmetry created political asymmetry. Before long there was a multitude of differing political systems operating in the Russian Federation including different types of political regime (presidential or parliamentary); electoral systems (proportional, majoritarian or mixed); and party systems. Across the federation we could soon detect a political spectrum running from partial democratisation at one end to delegative democracies and outright dictatorships at the other. However, one universal rule could be detected – the greater the autonomy granted to a federal

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Rousseau as a constitutionalist
Mads Qvortrup

.), Rousseau, l’‘Emile’, et la Révolution (Paris: Universitas, 1992). 23 J.S. Mill, it will be remembered, was anything but liberal. In Chapter VIII of Considerations on Representative Government he thus advocated that graduates should be given two votes to prevent the uneducated from gaining influence. Interestingly – and rather incredibly – this system existed in Britain until the late 1940s. See Robert Blackburn, The Electoral System in the United Kingdom (London: Macmillan, 1996). 24 In The Politics, Aristotle – in classical teleological fashion – noted ‘if earlier forms

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Open Access (free)
Partial offsets and unfinished business
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

Council in view of future enlargement; The Amsterdam reforms ● ● ● 73 the composition of the Commission and the EP, and the latter’s electoral system; Common Foreign and Security Policy;16 Justice and Home Affairs. Transparency and subsidiarity These issues are dealt with together since they tend to have overlapping consequences. At any rate, they are part of the package, which is linked to the relationship between the Union and its citizens. The AMT has elevated the importance of the issue by including ten chapters dealing with various relevant subjects. Increased

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

period for accommodating the MEPs from the new member states. Second, it suggested that there should be a provision inserted in the Treaty related to the 2009 Euro-elections, according to which 10 per cent of the EP’s membership will be elected in a single constituency with two lists, one European and one national. This means that the EP is proposing a limited transfer of the German electoral system at the larger level. The pro-federal features of this suggestion are evident and need no further comment! Third, regarding both the operation and organisation of EU

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Alex J. Bellamy

credentials.75 Opposition politics had two important features in the 1990s. First, opposition politics operated in a hostile environment. The HDZ was better funded, controlled the media and manipulated the electoral system to its own advantage. The second characteristic was fragmentation. Opposition parties organised themselves into coalitions that tended to change from election to election. In the 1991 elections the Croatian Peoples Party headed by the leaders of the 1971 ‘Croatian Spring’, Savka Dabïeviç-Kuïar and Mika Tripalo, joined with the HSLS to form the Coalition

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Neil Macmaster

, suppress the Muslim magistrates (cadis), suppress the ease with which husbands use repudiation, arrange things so that we can hang the veil in the window since it’s only useful as a curtain!’ Difrane argued that the key plank of government policy, to retain the colony through integrating the French and Muslim communities and by reform of the electoral system could not work until a revolution like that of Atatürk had been achieved. ‘One cannot dissolve two societies into one when one reflects the Middle Age and the other the Twentieth Century’. This was no time for half

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics