8 This has certainly been the most contentious of issues in the Irish reclamation of
Joyce in recent years, and Nolan’s study is one of the most sustained and clear
advocations of the argument. Cheng, in Joyce, Race and Empire, for all that he
submits to L. P. Curtis’s scheme of Punch-inspired and evidenced racism, in the
end argues for a Joyce set against ‘the pitfalls and limits of certain very alluring
but limited nationalist visions … [by which] one is doomed to failure by reproducing the same binary hierarchies inherited from one’s oppressors’ (1995: 218
, nineteen hundred
years prior to the sailors’ visit, of Salomon’s House. This institution, a technological-scientific think tank, is described as the
‘noblest foundation’ ever on earth. It is the light of Bensalem and
‘dedicated to the study of the works and creatures of God’, and
source of ‘the knowledge of causes, and secret motions of things;
and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire [and] …
effecting of all things possible’. It is, in other words, the engine
of otherwise unheard material progress and human self-reliance.1
Even so, the story opens with the
proclaim news of his
divine forgiveness. Gowther marries her and they inherit the empire.
Sir Gowther has seemed in the past too slight and eccentric, too
brusque and melodramatic to attract much serious notice apart from
classificatory investigation of its folktale affiliations and bureaucratic
inquiry into its generic status.2 What modicum of attention it has
otherwise gained has arisen because it draws upon the discourse of
demonology on the one hand and the discourse of penitence on the
Le Bone Florence of Rome and bourgeois self-making
expected answer is clearly not ‘Florence, of course’. Florence may
inherit but she cannot rule: in fact she is made to faint at this juncture
as if to acquiesce in her own incapacity. And so the unequal distribution of public power between men and women perpetuates itself;
the landless Emere acquires an empire, Florence sends him away and
her nightmares begin. The period I have already identified in which
she is neither a daughter nor a wife is the period of the horrific history
that gets pieced together at the end of the poem. As bourgeois reading
matter, Le Bone
Race, class, and poetry in a South American colony
Jason Rudy, Aaron Bartlett, Lindsey O'Neil, and Justin Thompson
, William Lane and the Australian Labor Movement , p. 162. James Belich writes that ‘a new version [of working-class optimism] emerged’ in Australia after the 1890s economic crisis, ‘emphasiz[ing] quality over quantity, and the welfare state over natural abundance’. Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World, 1783–1939 (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 363.
24 Jessie Reeder, The Forms of Informal Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020), p. 9.
25 Theodore Child, The South American
is where Callenbach tries to piece together
a version of sustainability in the contemporary economic parlance, as
exemplified by Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins’s Natural
Capitalism (1999), where private enterprise and environmental benefit
are seen as synergistic. Most controversially, Callenbach is ready and
willing to see these animals as fully absorbed into capitalist systems of
surplus value and the industrial animal-rendering empire. Effectively all
the millions of bison would be available for rendering and consumption,
, DC: Island Press, 19–49. Originally published in 1973
in Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23.
Jameson, Fredric 2009. ‘Then You Are Them’, Review of The Year of the Flood.
London Review of Books 10 September: 7–8.
Kermode, Frank 1967. The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction.
New York: Oxford University Press.
McAnany, Patricia A. and Yoffee, Norman (eds) 2010. Questioning Collapse: Human
Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Posner, Richard A. 2003. ‘The End Is Near
described America as ‘a peculiar and
special work appointed for many in our day’.25
Three: in English Traits, Emerson stated that:
In the island, they never let out all the length of all the reins, there is no
Berserkir rage, no abandonment or ecstasy of will or intellect ... But who
would see the uncoiling of that tremendous spring, the explosion of their
well-husbanded forces, must follow the swarms which, pouring now for two
hundred years from the British islands, have sailed, and rode, and traded, and
planted through all climates, mainly following the belt of empire
bureaucracy, by default, also produces
enthusiasm, in that historically enthusiasm has flared at moments of
Enthusiast! Essays on Modern American Literature
overbearing apparatus. Such structures produce an intense desire for
immediacy, for a direct contact with things, and in his or her intensity the
enthusiast is liable to become extreme.
Pound’s thinking about bureaucracy was thoroughgoing, traced back
through Church history. Thus ‘Christ,’ he contends, was not ‘constructing a
code for the administrating empire but a modus vivendi for the individual’