Dominant approaches

be more open to other experiences, other tools. This chapter divides roughly into two parts. The first part introduces briefly the polarity of universalism and relativism that structures much of what it is possible to say on human rights – chapter 3 explores this theme further. The chapter then looks at the story of the Lockean social contract, as one still potent myth of the origin for human rights and more broadly as a mechanism for conceptualising the human political community and ethics in the liberal state. The adequacy of these

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
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Migration research and the media

This section reflects on the politics, ethics, and practicalities of communicating academic research on migration through and with mainstream media channels.

in Go home?

THIS CHAPTER EXPLORES, through a discussion of one instance, how the principal categories of the Lockean narrative can shape the context for the understanding of and response to political injury. In the case of much Western response to the Beijing massacre the conceptualisation of man and the state is particularly important, as is the related articulation of the realms of ethics and politics. The following discussion of the Beijing killings also questions the adequacy of the terms of the debate between citizenship rights and human rights

in Human rights and the borders of suffering

. 6 Realists of course discard ethics in foreign affairs (with exceptions, such as those realists who take seriously the ‘morality of states’ 7 ) and regard only threats to vital interests worthy of intervention, and intervention for humanitarian reasons a delusion, or as bogus. Most leftist thinkers, such as Noam Chomsky, 8 Edward Said, Tariq Ali, 9 Jacques Derrida or Jean Baudrillard denounced the 1999 intervention in Kosovo and the whole idea of ‘humanitarian

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

3 ‘Who’s for bioethics?’ Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s Bioethics ceased to be an ‘American trend’ during the 1980s, when growing numbers of British outsiders publicly demanded greater external involvement in the development of guidelines for medicine and biological science. Their arguments were certainly successful. By the beginning of the 1990s, when the Guardian described the growing ‘ethics industry’, supporters of this new approach were influential public figures. One of the earliest and most high profile of these supporters was the

in The making of British bioethics
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groups. Teaching ethics, once a matter of professional etiquette, takes place on dedicated courses and in specialised departments that emphasise law and moral philosophy. A growing body of interdisciplinary journals considers topics that were once confined to the correspondence pages of the Lancet or the British Medical Journal. And public discussion of issues such as embryo research, cloning, genetic engineering or assisted dying are now as likely to be led by a lawyer or a philosopher as a doctor or a scientist. This new approach is known as ‘bioethics’: a neologism

in The making of British bioethics
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matter is grounded in the vital materialism of political ecologist Jane Bennett, who calls for more ethical engagements with ‘vibrant matter and lively things’ ( 2010 : viii). Departing from the human–human responsibility of social ethics, Bennett suggests that ‘perhaps the ethical responsibility of an individual human now resides in one’s response to the assemblages in which one finds oneself participating’ ( 2010 : 37). Aligned with strategies of new materialist, post-human and ecological discourses, Bennett’s framework shares a desire to dismantle ontological

in Performing care

include consideration of research outcomes and alignment of research goals and plans with societal concerns. The German Ethics Council (2014: 57) makes similar arguments, for example stating that: [T]he sciences are increasingly understood as being not merely self-contained processes that take place within a scientific community, but rather as being an integral component of general societal interrelationships . . . Accordingly, the ethical appraisal of science must concern itself not only with the practical consequences of knowledge, but also with the effects of the

in The freedom of scientific research
Just war and against tyranny

bellum (when resorting to war is justified and just) but later included jus in bello (appropriate conduct in the use of force). The idea of a just war can be seen as a middle road between the tradition of Realpolitik , which regards moral dilemmas and the ethics of war as irrelevant in international politics, and the alternative world view of pacifism. According to this middle road, war is deplorable but under certain circumstances justified and necessary as a last

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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The case of uterus and penis transplantation

, which also do not save or lengthen life, but increase reproductive and sexual function and thereby improve quality of life. This chapter identifies and discusses central ethical issues that are likely to arise in the development of uterus and penis transplantations. These include general issues related to the ethics of surgical research, and specific concerns regarding the rationale of these particular procedures in the context of reproductive and sexual medicine. How should prospective patient-subjects be selected for innovative surgeries? Are these procedures

in The freedom of scientific research