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Arthur B. Gunlicks

Christian principles by the Nazi regime. The other two Länder – Bremen and Hesse – were affected more by socialist ideas that rejected the economic concentration that allegedly bore some responsibility for the rise of the Nazis. The second generation of constitutions prepared after 1949 in BadenWürttemberg, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North-Rhine Westphalia, and Schleswig-Holstein, consisted of documents that were focused more on organizational principles, since the Basic Law provided for basic human and individual rights. The third generation of constitutions in the new

in The Länder and German federalism
Cameron Ross

citizens in a democracy-to-be . . . have no doubt or mental reservations as to which political community they belong to . . . [and] the people cannot decide until someone decides who are the people’.53 A further problem in multinational states, as Smith notes, ‘is how to counter domination by either nationalist-minded minorities or the majority national group’. One answer for those who advocate a liberal federation ‘is to prioritise the individual rights of citizens regardless of their ethnic or national affiliation’.54 For as O’Donnell rightly observes: ‘Citizenship can

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
David Boucher

individual rights, particularly human rights, only gross infringements on a significant scale, for example genocide, would justify intervention if there are ‘reasonable expectations of success’. 35 In such circumstances, a state falls significantly below what the idea of statehood requires, and breaches the trust endowed upon it by its citizens in some form of social contract. Walzer’s argument brings

in Political concepts
Journalism practice, risk and humanitarian communication
Jairo Lugo-Ocando and Gabriel Andrade

a lot of reflection about its fairness. Do inheritors deserve what they get? Is it not an additional, undeserved advantage that erodes equality of opportunity? And yet, other philosophers believe that even if, indeed, there are plenty of injustices in the world, there is not much that we can do about it, because interventions would imply a great violation of individual rights. Nozick, an example of this school of

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Caroline Rusterholz

By referring to contraception as a ‘human right’, this constitution pinpointed the international dimension of this right, beyond the individual rights of Western citizens. It reflected the view that birth control had to become an international priority and that every human should consider birth control and plan their family accordingly. In addition, this rhetoric diluted the feminist perspective usually linked with birth control, in favour of a more ‘gender-neutral’ approach to family planning, where gender specificities were less visible. Framing birth control as

in Women’s medicine
Jonathan Wolff

troubling. However, my reply is that there is no single, special, value that all tolerant societies must endorse. A society might be tolerant, for example, purely because it is based on a strong doctrine of individual rights. Or it might be committed to the exercise of public reason. Or because its people are just naturally open-minded. The essence of toleration continues to depend on the process by which challenges are met, rather than any particular value or values underlying the process (even though some value or other must be present). A different problem in applying

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Ideology and the Conservative Party, 1997–2001
Mark Garnett

the ‘historical continuity’ claimed by Seldon and Snowden. For example, Lilley asserted that: ‘We have an obligation to transmit to the next generation the heritage of learning and culture which we have inherited and developed.’ He also claimed that: ‘The Conservative tradition of pragmatism means that we believe in judging by results.’ There was even a complaint about the intrusion 116 Mark Garnett of business language into inappropriate areas, and an emphasis on obligations to others rather than individual rights. In short, like Seldon and Snowden Lilley was

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Criteria for ecologically rational governance
Lennart J. Lundqvist

natural resources is subjected to political debate and decision-making in democratic processes open to meaningful public participation at all levels of governance. • Governance is ecologically rational in terms of individual autonomy to the extent that the balance among different policy instruments used in such governance is explicitly tilted in favour of safeguarding individual rights across generations. 2579Ch1 12/8/03 11:46 AM Page 19 Where the grass is greener 19 Ecological governance and the authority of government It was argued above that collective

in Sweden and ecological governance
Eunice Goes

Etzioni 1993: 40 and 1997a: 27; Tam 1998: 1–3. 8 Etzioni 1993: 4. More recently, Etzioni (2000: 29) has argued that rights are not conditional. ‘Basic individual rights are inalienable, just as one’s social obligations cannot be denied. However, it is a grave moral

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos

global north and global south alike, reflecting different development ideologies of individual freedoms and very different trajectories of political settlement internationally. Self-monitoring, individual rights, nudging and actuarial risk Wearable devices now offer the opportunity to self-monitor quite detailed measures of health: exercise, diet, heartbeat and so on. But what happens when these devices feed through to third parties – either states or corporates managing the health sector? Looking benevolently both the individual and the state can use such data to

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city