Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century
the sources of stress – God, men, or a society that so signally despises isolated pregnant women? Or perhaps she would be protesting a more general frailty of nature – the cold and exhaustion that bring on hopelessness, or even the nature of the body of a fertile female.
Accrediting Agnes's experience requires giving her a vocabulary. What might be the keywords for converting experience into protest? Two would be ‘misery’ and ‘miserable’. Yet, as with ‘complain’ and ‘complaint’, the OED chronicles confusion: both conflation and inversion of
vaccination show wider concerns about the relationship between the state, its citizens and the nature of public health governmentality. 25 The book does this by building on existing histories of specific diseases and vaccine crises. This has been a common feature of the historiography of British immunisation policy. Works on the introduction of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, an anti-tuberculosis vaccine), diphtheria immunisation, polio vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine have given insight into the scientific, political and cultural context of vaccination and how it was
convenient for parents and children. It was a form of communication; a translation of the diffuse behaviours of the public into a language which administrators and policy makers could understand.
Apathy is an amorphous concept. Indeed, the imprecise nature of the term in itself gives us insight into the motivations and thinking behind local and national policy. This chapter therefore attempts not to deconstruct how the concept was experienced by parents in 1950s Britain but, rather, to explore how it was used – often without precision – by various
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human
Making a ‘balanced team’: finding the right men
In addition to balance constituting a literal property of the human body, the term balance also carried metaphorical weight, providing ways of understanding the world and shaping the nature of research programmes and expeditionary teams. In particular, there were parallels between the ecosystem of the body and that of the research group. Expeditions in spaces such as Everest or the South Pole functioned with a fixed set of resources – whether it was
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
Journal, Vol. 326 (2003) p. 1276. Emphasis added.
6 Lock, ‘Towards a National Bioethics Committee’.
7 Kennedy, interview with the author (2010). See also Capron, ‘Looking
Back at the President’s Commission’.
8 Kennedy, interview with the author (2010).
Consolidating the ‘ethics industry’ 245
9 On the public nature of the Commission’s work, see Capron, ‘Looking
Back at the President’s Commission’, p. 8.
10 Kennedy, ‘Consumerism in the Doctor–Patient Relationship’, Listener,
11 December 1980, pp. 777–80 (pp. 780, 777).
11 Ibid, p. 777.
12 Ian Kennedy
’s mental stability. As they argued:
‘Whom an infant chooses as his attachment object and how many
objects he selects depend, we believe, primarily on the nature of
the social setting in which he is reared and not on some intrinsic
characteristic of the attachment function itself.’ 72 They sought
to understand attachment not as a problem of relationships but as a
problem of ‘social
‘self-made’ was in tension with the religious idea of ‘self-culture’, introduced to the American public by the Unitarian theologian William Ellery Channing and then spread through the writings of nineteenth-century transcendentalists and progressives, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Russell Lowell. Channing defined self-culture as the ‘care which every man owes to himself, to the unfolding and perfecting of his nature’, and noted that Americans held the ‘means of improvement, of self-culture, possessed no where else’.
concentrating on sick-nursing and on founding hospitals. Some were exclusively intended for Europeans; others welcomed all ethnic groups.
Of a slightly different nature was the Semarang-based Society for the
Promotion of Native Nursing Practices, whose aim was to promote
Nursing in the Dutch East Indies
7.1 Mrs Bervoets and her husband with student nurses and student midwives
in Mojowarno around 1910
the interests of native nursing – just as the mission intended to do.18
Business interest occasioned a need for medical care among companies to serve their employees
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s
, healthy or unhealthy, self or other.
This duality in health advice enabled the HEC, and by extension the state, to ‘shape food preferences and beliefs in everyday life, to support some food choices and militate against others, and to contribute to the construction of subjectivity and embodied experiences’.
The role of the state in this process raises questions about the nature of citizenship in 1970s and 1980s Britain. The rise
, one of his main goals was to draw a distinction between
what had previously been termed ‘educational
psychology’ and what he referred to as ‘clinical
psychology’. 12 He wanted to develop an objective science
of psychology based on direct observation that was primarily
experimental in nature, yet which also got to the heart of
subjectivity and self-hood. 13 In this way