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Arthur B. Gunlicks

believe that separation of powers is or should be a characteristic of their parliamentary system and that there is a widespread misperception of the roles of government and opposition parties in supporting and opposing the government and the leading role of the government in the legislative process.95 These studies are not very different in principle from studies that show that many Americans also do not understand their state legislatures, and, like many Germans, have unrealistic and contradictory expectations regarding legislators and the policy making process. It is

in The Länder and German federalism
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

necessitated by the ratification of the Treaty of European Union (all that was formally required under the constitution). However, over the summer the French began to reflect, much as the Danes had done a few months earlier. The main opposition party, the RPR (Rassemblement Pour la République) became deeply divided, displaying the traditional French ambivalence about, on the one hand, more integration in order to rein in Germany and to permit France to play a dominant role in European affairs and, on the other, less integration to preserve French sovereignty in a Gaullist

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

hundreds of officers and non-commissioned officers (NCO) for being “excessively affiliated” with Islamic bodies. On 16 June 1998, for instance, 167 officers and NCOs were fired in the largest purge carried out in a single day. 10 When Turkey reverted to a multiparty system in 1983, the Muslim opposition groups came to occupy a legitimate slot in the political system. People from the lower classes and many Kurds joined Islamic opposition parties because the existing parties did not address their needs. Furthermore, some of the opposition to the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

participated in the international ‘forum for freedom in education’ that allowed educators in Croatia to work on common problems with colleagues from across Europe.105 This forum also brought together educators and members of the opposition parties. The OSI had planned to include the Ministry of Education in this project but the Ministry refused to participate.106 Another way that the OSI sought to enhance the quality of education and introduce pupils to different ideas was through a scheme to donate one computer with an internet connection to every school in Croatia. However

in The formation of Croatian national identity
The parliamentary arena
Ami Pedahzur

Parliament as well as over the majority of state institutions, did not leave much room for any kind of genuine challenge by the opposition parties. However, the Israeli political system was designed in a fashion that in fact emphasised the principle of representation, thus encouraging small parties to take part in elections to the Knesset. After the founding of the State, Israel promptly adopted the ‘proportional’ representation electoral system and placed the qualifying threshold of entrance to the Knesset (consisting of 120 members) at only 1 per

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

, both the existing government coalition and the opposition parties tried to form a new governing coalition. In fact, for several days it was not clear which group of parties would form the next government. Indeed, two competing coalitions even held separate news conferences within hours of each other suggesting that they would form the next government. Eventually, it was Chuan Leekpai’s Democrat Party that formed the government. However, Chuan required the support of five other political parties to form his coalition government – which took office on November 15 with a

in The Asian financial crisis
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

early 1982 the Alliance was more popular than the Conservatives or the Labour Party in opinion polls. The SDP had over 55,000 members for most of its existence. Though the Alliance did moderately well in the 1987 general election (22.5 per cent), it had failed to displace the Labour Party as the chief opposition party in Britain. A decision was therefore made by the two Alliance parties to merge into a single party. Though

in The politics today companion to West European Politics