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EU political community, reformers must pay attention to the generation of one. Deliberation is a means by which this sense of community can be created by a process of difference management. It is also open-ended and processbased – which sits well with the evolutionary nature of the European integration process. Deliberative democracy argues that the best form of democratic governance is one in which all those affected by a public policy engage in a process of deliberation: that is, they exchange views, try to understand other actors’ needs and perspectives, and

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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to psychoanalytic approaches to self and society, in contemporary westernised political communities both are formed around a lack or excess. Both are inescapably insecure, contingent. EDKINS 9781526119032 PRINT.indd 4 22/02/2019 08:34 introduction 5 They can never be complete – the gap can never be fully closed, or the surplus contained. The lack can be concealed, however, and it usually is – ­producing a social fantasy that makes us feel secure. The book examined what happens when something shatters the illusion, and reveals the inevitable insecurity and

in Change and the politics of certainty
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out into three intimately related questions: firstly, how can we expand who we consider parts of our political communities? Secondly, what do we consider a political enunciation? And thirdly, who do we consider a speaking subject? Accordingly, I ask four related questions: is dance seen as a legitimate avenue to express politics? When does politics occur in dance? Why does politics occur in dance? What conception of political dance does this interchange yield? Those questions will reappear throughout the book in various guises as they provided me with the

in Dance and politics
Analysing two arenas over time

. In this case, the very nature of integration follows the stimulating definition, which describes ‘the process whereby 2444Ch1 3/12/02 10 2:01 pm Page 10 Introduction political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations and political activities towards a new centre, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre-existing national states. The end result of a process of political integration is expected to lead to a new political community, superimposed over the pre-existing ones.’37 The

in Fifteen into one?

of the single market) and of a new co-operation procedure upgrading (under certain conditions) the legislative role of the EP, can be said to correspond to what neofunctionalists originally had in mind: the regional centralisation of authoritative decision-making driven by the expansive logic of integration and, eventually, the emergence of a new European ‘political community’. Reflections on the TEU This section considers the state of theorising European integration in the 1990s in relation to the political and constitutional physiognomy of the Maastricht Treaty

in Theory and reform in the European Union

concerns from the loftier realms of political community. Perhaps, too, rather than suggesting that the students meant nothing by their slogans, these concrete concerns offer some insight into what the students actually did understand by ‘democracy’ – perhaps some version of greater fairness and the opportunity to air grievances. Certainly lack of access to university-level or local leaders was a persistent frustration (see, e.g. Nathan and Liull, 2001: 16). While Macartney’s observation asserts that at the heart of the students’ apparently universalist rhetoric was a

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
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Religion and spirituality in environmental direct action

citizens. By contrast, the spiritual technologies of the self explored here, we argue, are less amenable to such a critical reading. 212 Part III Being 5 Such mythmaking is of course a perennial feature of political communities (see Anderson (1983); Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983)). 6 These myths do have their origins in Native American culture, but the form in which activists know them originates in the ‘Rainbow Family’, an alternative social movement originating in the United States in the early 1970s, originally influenced by Native American traditions which were later

in Changing anarchism
Problematising the normative connection

). 35 In his discussion of human rights, Ruggie points to the importance of interests and context: ‘Human rights are more than a mere rationalization of structures of power. Yet their international normative status remains closely dependent upon the projection of power, the defense of interests, and the nature of political community existing among states

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
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A Party of the 99% and the Power of Debt

publicly run banking system can provide for this debt-free, with no premiums required. In other words, everyone is covered by virtue of being a member of the political community. Seventh, a Party of the 99% should fund retirement at a democratically agreed-upon age. Presently, because of the economic insecurity wrought by the 2008 financial crisis and the defunding of pension plans by governments and municipalities bankrupted by debt, retirement is out of reach for many. Consequently, the elderly are forced to continue working longer (see Table 5.1). While many may be

in Debt as Power
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Another time

re-constitution of singlehood into a social category that one may wish to identify with—and form a political community with—can positively yield material and discursive changes. Here, I join DePaulo (2006), Reynolds (2008), and Moran (2004)4 in their call for the politicization of singlehood and the need for a nuanced feminist engagement with the concept. This book is also a call for such needed intervention. In this vein, some recent developments may inspire the hope of social change. At the time of writing, the 2016 American presidential election campaign was

in A table for one