EU politicalcommunity, reformers must pay attention to
the generation of one. Deliberation is a means by which
this sense of community can be created by a process of
difference management. It is also open-ended and processbased – which sits well with the evolutionary nature of the
European integration process.
Deliberative democracy argues that the best form of democratic governance is one in which all those affected by a
public policy engage in a process of deliberation: that is,
they exchange views, try to understand other actors’ needs
and perspectives, and
to psychoanalytic approaches to self and society,
in contemporary westernised politicalcommunities both are formed
around a lack or excess. Both are inescapably insecure, contingent.
EDKINS 9781526119032 PRINT.indd 4
They can never be complete – the gap can never be fully closed, or
the surplus contained. The lack can be concealed, however, and it
usually is – producing a social fantasy that makes us feel secure. The
book examined what happens when something shatters the illusion,
and reveals the inevitable insecurity and
out into three intimately related questions: firstly, how
can we expand who we consider parts of our politicalcommunities?
Secondly, what do we consider a political enunciation? And thirdly, who
do we consider a speaking subject? Accordingly, I ask four related questions: is dance seen as a legitimate avenue to express politics? When does
politics occur in dance? Why does politics occur in dance? What conception of political dance does this interchange yield? Those questions will
reappear throughout the book in various guises as they provided me with
Wolfgang Wessels, Andreas Maurer and Jürgen Mittag
. In this case, the very nature of integration
follows the stimulating definition, which describes ‘the process whereby
political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift
their loyalties, expectations and political activities towards a new centre,
whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre-existing
national states. The end result of a process of political integration is
expected to lead to a new politicalcommunity, superimposed over the
pre-existing ones.’37 The
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis and Kostas Ifantis
of the single market) and of a new co-operation procedure upgrading
(under certain conditions) the legislative role of the EP, can be said to correspond
to what neofunctionalists originally had in mind: the regional centralisation of
authoritative decision-making driven by the expansive logic of integration and,
eventually, the emergence of a new European ‘politicalcommunity’.
Reflections on the TEU
This section considers the state of theorising European integration in the 1990s
in relation to the political and constitutional physiognomy of the Maastricht
concerns from the loftier realms of politicalcommunity. Perhaps, too, rather than suggesting that the students meant nothing by their slogans, these concrete concerns offer some insight into what the students actually did understand by ‘democracy’ – perhaps some version of greater fairness and the opportunity to air grievances. Certainly lack of access to university-level or local leaders was a persistent frustration (see, e.g. Nathan and Liull, 2001: 16). While Macartney’s observation asserts that at the heart of the students’ apparently universalist rhetoric was a
Religion and spirituality in environmental direct action
Bronislaw Szerszynski and Emma Tomalin
citizens. By contrast, the spiritual technologies of the self explored here, we argue, are less amenable
to such a critical reading.
5 Such mythmaking is of course a perennial feature of politicalcommunities (see
Anderson (1983); Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983)).
6 These myths do have their origins in Native American culture, but the form in which
activists know them originates in the ‘Rainbow Family’, an alternative social movement originating in the United States in the early 1970s, originally influenced by
Native American traditions which were later
In his discussion of human rights, Ruggie points
to the importance of interests and context: ‘Human rights
are more than a mere rationalization of structures of
power. Yet their international normative status remains closely
dependent upon the projection of power, the defense of interests,
and the nature of politicalcommunity existing among states
publicly run banking system can provide for this
debt-free, with no premiums required. In other words, everyone is
covered by virtue of being a member of the politicalcommunity.
Seventh, a Party of the 99% should fund retirement at a
democratically agreed-upon age. Presently, because of the economic
insecurity wrought by the 2008 financial crisis and the defunding of
pension plans by governments and municipalities bankrupted by debt,
retirement is out of reach for many. Consequently, the elderly are
forced to continue working longer (see Table 5.1).
While many may be
re-constitution of singlehood
into a social category that one may wish to identify with—and form a politicalcommunity with—can positively yield material and discursive changes. Here, I join
DePaulo (2006), Reynolds (2008), and Moran (2004)4 in their call for the politicization of singlehood and the need for a nuanced feminist engagement with the concept.
This book is also a call for such needed intervention.
In this vein, some recent developments may inspire the hope of social change. At
the time of writing, the 2016 American presidential election campaign was